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filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

a filosofia está de volta ao jardim de infância



hoje estive no jardim de infância, para iniciar o projecto de filosofia para crianças, nas salas dos 3/4 anos e dos 4/5 anos. 

(3/4 anos)

começámos por nos conhecer e tentar explorar o ponto de interrogação. é um mistério, dizem alguns. e o que fazemos quando encontramos um mistério? o que é um mistério? 

(4/5 anos) 

recordámos algum do trabalho da filosofia, do ano passado. e demos uso à caixa da imaginação, que nos faz pensar coisas um pouco tontas!





today I went to kindergarten to start the philosophy project for children with 3/4 years and 4/5 years.

(3/4 anos)
we started by getting to know each other and trying to explore the question mark (?) It's a mystery, someone said. and what do we do when we find a mystery? what is a mystery?
(4/5 anos) 
we remembered some of the philosophy work we did last year. and we gave use to the imagination box, which made us think a silly things!

Amy Leask: "(...)a learning environment that encourages big questions creates a bond of trust between students and their teachers."

"Hello, my name is Amy Leask and I'm a philosopher!" - this is how Amy introduces herself at her ted talk (tedxmilton). I met Amy and her project RedTKids on Twitter. 

Amy Leask is an author, educator, and children’s interactive media producer. She’s the founder of Red T Media in Ontario, Canada, and delights in finding new ways to reach curious little minds. 




Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

I heard about philosophy of childhood while I was an undergraduate, but nothing about philosophy for children until I was teaching at the college level. There were a lot of intelligent young adults in my philosophy classes who had never really put together an argument of their own, and who didn’t realize they were allowed to disagree, or think critically about the ideas presented to them. Like most P4C advocates, I thought philosophy needed to be introduced at a younger age, and when I looked into it further, I found I wasn’t alone. There was a growing community of philosophers who wanted to bring a new kind of thinking to a younger audience.


How did you started working with p4c?

While I was teaching philosophy to big kids, I started writing material that presented philosophical ideas to children. I wanted to create something fun and entertaining that they could read to themselves, but that also encouraged them to ask questions, and to embrace logic and reason. Over the years, my original manuscript has turned into a number of books, as well as cartoons, games, apps, and teacher materials. Presently, I run an independent multimedia company that focuses almost exclusively on P4C, in interactive formats.  


Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

21st century learning is founded on thinking practices that, ironically, have been around for millennia in philosophy. Children today may be digital natives, but they still need low-tech skills like critical thinking, problem solving, communication and creativity in order to successfully navigate school, the working world, and their personal life.

I see P4C as an effort to teach children survival skills, but also to empower them, and to engage them in a practice that’s shared by all humans. Beyond the necessary parts, children really enjoy asking big questions, and it’s actually fun for them to engage in discussion. Why not make the most of what comes naturally to them?


Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

It’s expected that teachers cover things like critical thinking and problem solving in their curriculum, but both are fairly difficult things to teach, especially in a crowded classroom, with limited time and resources. P4C enables teachers to reach so many learning objectives. What’s more, I think a learning environment that encourages big questions creates a bond of trust between students and their teachers. If a child knows his or her teacher isn’t afraid to dive into inquiry, he or she will feel more supported and comfortable going beneath the surface of ideas.

P4C has cross-curricular applications, and is helpful in supporting children’s mental health, anti-bullying programs, and an appreciation of diversity. It works wonders, both inside and outside the classroom, and it helps children become well-rounded thinkers.


What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

I think most philosophical questions have a “why” component to them. We have to use different lines of thinking to answer them, different than we would use to answer a scientific question. I’d say a philosophical question is one that has more than one answer, although some answers are still better than others. Philosophical questions are about our place in the universe, our relationships with other beings, and about ourselves.

The beautiful thing about P4C is that children seem especially adept at asking these kinds of questions (and taking their parents by surprise in doing so). It’s a privilege and a pleasure to help them reason their way through them.


What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

Philosophy itself is in need of rebranding. It has a reputation of being for adults, and for belonging only in the academy. Most grown-ups, let alone children, don’t know much about it, and those who do know about it are often intimidated by it. The challenge lies in extending the reach of philosophy and making it part of people’s everyday lives. It needs to be mainstream, and people need to know how helpful, how interesting, and how much fun it is. We need to find ways to demonstrate that it really is for everyone.


Can you give the teachers and the parents some kid of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

First and foremost, don’t be afraid to admit that you don’t know. As adults, we fear that in admitting this, we’ll be letting our children down, that they’ll no longer have confidence in us. However, it’s actually quite liberating, and being vulnerable in front of a child like this can encourage trust. What could be more enriching than exploring a problem together, and learning together? 

Besides that, it’s important to recognize that children do philosophy differently. They might only want to ponder big questions for short periods of time, and they often do so through art projects, science experiments, or dramatic role-play. Philosophy is still philosophy, even when it’s done with toys, books, and games.


Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

I’m always surprised by questions children ask. They seem to get right at the heart of the matter, wondering why we exist, how they’re supposed to behave, and who decides what’s fair. Their answers surprise me even more. I once did a workshop in which an older child brought his preschool-aged sister. She spent most of the time running in circles, doodling with crayons, and giggling, and we assumed she wasn’t listening. But when we posed the question “What makes a human?” she blurted out “Love makes us human, silly!” and then went back to running and playing, like it was nothing. It took the discussion in a totally different direction, and it reminded me that even very young children can surprise us with their insights.

uma reflexão sobre a filosofia e a filosofia aplicada

nos passados dias 5 e 6 de Setembro de 2018 realizou-se na UBI o 3º Congresso Internacional de Filosofia, organizado pela Sociedade Portuguesa de Filosofia.

pela primeira vez, neste Congresso, houve lugar para um painel sobre filosofia aplicada. 


nos intervalos do Congresso falou-se sobre filosofia e a filosofia aplicada, sobre filosofia dentro e fora da escola. e também sobre a filosofia académica e "a outra".


partilho convosco as palavras de Jose Barrientos-Rastrojo (via facebook) sobre esta questão:


"Medio centenar de ponencias y mesas sobre Filosofía Aplicada y Filosofía con/para Niños en el último World Congress of Philosophy, principal evento mundial de Filosofía, ¿no debería ser suficiente razón para que reflexionen los Decanos y sus equipos de las facultades europeas de Filosofía que aún no disponen de estrategias para la integración de la disciplina en los planes de estudios? Aún más, ¿no debería ser razón suficiente para que los futuros estudiantes de filosofía decidan matricularse prioritariamente en las carreras que ofrezcan esta opción? Incluso, ¿no es momento de movernos, quizás, de compartir esta breve reflexión en los "muros" de quien esté leyendo este mensaje?
Una decena de las mejores Facultades de Filosofía en Latinoamérica están dando pasos elocuentes para su implantación desde hace una década. Ya existen Masteres, Licenciaturas y formaciones de profesores universitarios en esta línea en Meso y Sudamérica. Gratifica saber que su energía se adelanta a cierta senectud europea. Ojalá el recelo se abisme en el viejo continente y la cordura se imponga..."



ecos do 3º congresso internacional de filosofia



"o que viemos fazer aqui?" - perguntou o professor José Rosa, na conferência de abertura do Congresso. e, agora que já terminaram os trabalhos, estou em condições de responder: vim até à UBI, na Covilhã, para me deixar encantar pelo azul do céu e o ar da montanha e, sobretudo, para partilhar e colocar a filosofia em prática.


o painel de filosofia aplicada

há uns meses recebi um e-mail do Pepe Barrientos-Rastrojo no sentido de propormos um painel de filosofia aplicada no 3º Congresso Internacional de Filosofia, organizado pela Sociedade Portuguesa de Filosofia.

desse painel também fizeram parte a Magda Costa Carvalho, a Maria Teresa Santos e a Dina Mendonça. falámos de filosofia, de filosofia aplicada, bem como de como são "velhas" as novas práticas filosóficas. a filosofia para/com crianças foi um dos pontos de ordem deste painel, onde apresentámos pontos de vista diferentes:

- o Pepe falou-nos de como é possível transformar a filosofia de Rorty em espaços de oficinas, onde crianças, jovens e adultos podem trabalhar e desenvolver as competências do pensamento crítico, criativo, colaborativo e cuidativo > "A criação privada do eu e a solidariedade pública com os outros na Filosofia para as Crianças. Uma aproximação à disciplina desde Richard Rorty";

- a Magda apresentou-nos uma reflexão sobre o papel da filosofia para crianças na revitalização da própria filosofia: "A Filosofia para Crianças con-quista a Filosofia";

- a Dina trouxe-nos uma comunicação em que abordou "A Filosofia para Crianças e o aprofundamento dos processos de aprendizagem – o diálogo filosófico e as capacidades argumentativas";

- a Teresa partilhou um trabalho de reflexão de Marta Naussbam sobre o trabalho de Lipman e o modo como o programa age sobre a vivência da democracia; a comunicação intitulava-se "Em defesa das humanidades e da democracia. O elogio de Martha Nussbaum a Matthew Lipman".


Kant e a prática da investigação filosófica

procurei apresentar uma reflexão pessoal em torno de Kant e do Kant que me chegou por via do Lipman. acabei por partilhar um pouco do processo de pensamento e de construção da comunicação, que conheceu avanços e recuos, mudanças justificadas e procura de fundamentos. afinal, o processo de investigação que a comunidade de investigação filosófica possibilita é algo que pratico na minha investigação individual, para a qual convoco as pessoas que me são próximas, como a Gabriela Castro e o Pepe Barrientos, com quem dialoguei via e-mail ou via messenger; além dos textos dos filósofos com os quais dialogo e construo (desconstruo) o meu pensamento.



viagem ao passado e a homenagem, no presente, ao professor Artur Morão

voltar à Covilhã, oito anos depois da minha primeira visita, traduziu-se no (re)encontro com os professores José Rosa e António Amaral, que me acompanharam na licenciatura. houve ainda lugar, durante o congresso, para uma homenagem ao professor Artur Morão, cujas aulas não esqueço, cuja alegria de ser e de estar é contagiante. o motivo da homenagem: as inúmeras obras traduzidas pelo professor que nos permitem dialogar com tantos textos fundamentais da filosofia - e não só!



filosofia fora e dentro da escola

o Alves Jana, do Clube de Filosofia de Abrantes, partilhou uma comunicação sobre os espaços de intervenção da filosofia, fora dos muros da escola: "a sociedade a que pertencemos precisa do contributo da filosofia, mesmo quando não sabe que precisa".


o João Teodósio falou-nos de experiências que aproximam a filosofia das vicências dos alunos e da realidade em que vivem - aprendizagem experiencial da disciplina de filosofia no ensino sedcundário. partilho convosco uma curiosidade: eu e o João Teodósio fizemos parte de um documentário realizado pelo Guilherme e pelo João, no Fundão, sobre filosofia: a sala 13. 


Leila Athaides partilhou um trabalho muito interessante sobre o impulso lúdico em Schiller e a sua aplicação em conteúdos de filosofia, no ensino médio. a Leila veio do Brasil, cruzou o oceano para nos brindar com uma apresentação cuidada e pertinente sobre um trabalho que, a meu ver, pode cruzar muito com as estruturas da filosofia para/com crianças. 



a minha primeira apresentação num encontro da Sociedade Portuguesa de Filosofia data de 2013 e consistiu numa oficina de filosofia pensada e criada com a Celeste Machado. foi com muita honra que voltei a participar num evento da SPF e em tão boa companhia!


ainda sobre a minha apresentação e o início onde resumi algumas das ideias do primeiro dia do Congresso:

Sinto que a filosofia para/com crianças e jovens é um “imperativo categórico”, nos tempos que correm.

Na linha da comunicação da professora Adela Cortina, encaro com seriedade o compromisso de empoderar as crianças e os jovens na defesa dos seus pontos de vista.

Um empoderamento que é [metafísico, ético e] cordial e implica o ser humano na sua inteireza, tal como defendeu Kant na terceira Crítica. O ser humano é inteligência, vontade e afectividade.

M. Luísa Ribeiro Ferreira falou-nos, a propósito do ensino da filosofia no ensino secundário, da necessidade dos alunos pensarem por si próprios. Sublinhou também o papel inquietante e des-instaladorda filosofia, perante os alunos e os professores.

Neves Vicente relatou uma experiência, com ênfase no papel do facilitador enquanto um orientador munido de ferramentas que permitem o trabalho filosófico, independentemente do conteúdo.

Maria João Couto lançou a questão da formação dos formadores da filosofia para crianças, algo que preocupa cada vez mais quem, como eu, está no terreno a desenvolver trabalho e investigação nesta área.


também partilhei algumas ideias no twitter, com as tags #3CIF e #socportfilos


agora é hora de escrever e preparar o artigo para publicação. 




Kelly Cowling: "The best way to demystify philosophy is to get people doing philosophy together."

Through Twitter, I found Grey Havens Philosophy and reached out for contact, so that this collaborative work published in this blog could grow with their perspective about P4C. 


kelly ghp office.jpg


Kelly Cowling is the founder and Executive Director of Grey Havens Philosophy, a community philosophy nonprofit based in Longmont, Colorado. Grey Havens Philosophy's free programs include five ongoing philosophy discussion groups for ages 8-18. Our Philosophy in Public Spaces (PiPS) initiative is making intergenerational philosophy discussions part of the life of our community. 


Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

I first heard about Philosophy for Children when I took my first class with Ron Reed at Texas Wesleyan University in the early 90s. Up to that point, my experience with education had not been good. I wasn’t particularly interested in becoming an educator back then, but I waspreoccupied with figuring out how education could be better than it had been for me.


How did you started working with p4c?

Through a non-traditional route. In 2010, I started a chapter-by-chapter book discussion group for adults in the back room of a locally-owned bookstore. Over time, it became quite popular and expanded into a network of book groups, a small symposium, and other events. People seemed to get a lot of meaning and fulfilment out of the gatherings. I suspected that it was because I had been facilitating discussions using what I knew of P4C.

In 2013, I and a few others partnered with our local library to establish a weekly philosophy group for 6th-12thgraders. Now, Grey Havens Philosophy is a non-profit organization that partners with our city, libraries throughout the region, other nonprofits, and businesses to bring philosophy to as many public spaces as possible.

I would call what we do P4C-inspired, rather than strictly P4C. We are always learning at the same time as we are teaching volunteers to do what we do.  Our facilitators get together every month to practice their skills with each other and reflect on what goes on in discussions. We involve our young people in this process as well. We don’t know how this will impact how we do things in five, ten, twenty years.


Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

I think regular access to a healthy community of inquiry is important if we want our children to thrive. We now have teens who are beginning their fifth year of weekly philosophy discussions, and we have graduates of our programs who always seem to find their way back to our discussions when they are home from school during breaks. Being members of a thinking community has become an important part of their identities. While we are still working to evaluate the long-term impact of our programs using both objective and subjective measures, I can tell you what we see happening.

Our participants bring all of their experiences into discussions, including what they learn at school, at home, from friends, from popular culture, and on the internet. They learn how alike yet different their experiences are from those of their peers. They become proficient in asking questions about their experiences then finding the questions that underlie those questions. They tell us that they do this on their own, with friends and family, and that (with varying degrees of success) they raise philosophical questions in class, but they recognize that they do some of their best thinking when they come together in a community that exists for that purpose.

 Our young people have also become comfortable exploring the same big questions again and again and again. Two weeks after declaring that he would not discuss the nature of human consciousness yet again, a thirteen-year-old participant asked, “What is consciousness, anyway?” That participant is now sixteen and still happily diving into the question of consciousness.

There are several things happening here that we expect to serve our participants as they grow up:

  • An understanding that quality thinking requires the ability to synthesize information from multiple sources and the ability to evaluate sources
  • An understanding that thinking can be most productive and fulfilling when it is done in community
  • An understanding that asking questions can both accomplish what we need it to at any given time and that there are always questions beyond those questions
  • The experience of, as one eleven-year-old participant put it, “watching our minds grow.” Thinking about thinking helps young people to recognize that they are in control of how they learn. It helps them to develop a habit of self-reflection that improves emotional regulation and decision-making. It helps them to better evaluate the thinking of others and affords them the joy of marvelling at their own growth.

Our hope is that kids who grow up in thinking communities like ours will become workers who are good at collaborating to solve problems and who find satisfaction in their work because they are able to reflect on why they are doing it. We want them to grow up to be citizens who are able to recognize injustice, who are better at deciphering the statements and intentions of those with power, and who enjoy being engaged and engaging others in democracy. We want them to be individuals and family members who derive more satisfaction from their relationships because they think about the value and meaning of human interactions. There are lots of ways to cultivate these qualities, but philosophy is a comprehensive approach that can be practiced as a way of life.  We advocate introducing children to the philosophical way of life as early as possible.


Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

 All of the benefits I have described above are excellent reasons to integrate philosophical thinking in school curricula, but we don’t think we skipped a step by establishing our programs outside of schools. Just as a young person might identify as an athlete, musician, or dancer, because they belong to an organization where they improve their skills through practice, our participants identify as deep thinkers because they are part of an organization where they practice thinking. They get to participate in thinking with people of all generations in many different settings. Our young people are as comfortable thinking with the adults from our local Senior Center as they are thinking with each other. They get to see that adults take their ideas seriously and regard them as co-inquirers.


What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

 We train our facilitators to listen closely to what participants are saying so that they can identify the potential for questions related to the branches of philosophy—questions about knowing, being, ethics, power, beauty, and ultimate reality. It’s a skill that they can only develop with guidance and practice.

We encourage our participants to look at external reference points to answer questions then, as the discussion progresses, we typically move to questions that are less and less answerable through external reference points. In one way or another, we often end up asking ourselves if we can really know anything.

 If epistemological questions were the only valid philosophical questions, however, we wouldn’t get very far. Instead, we try to recognize that most questions contain underlying questions that can’t be answered with an external reference point. We enjoy exploring the bigger philosophical questions, but we also appreciate the process of uncovering them. Every question along the way matters because we still have to make practical and ethical decisions even when we question the fundamental nature of reality.

The most important thing is for the group to be able to retrace their steps in a discussion and identify the kinds of questions they were asking and the kinds of thinking they were doing. Participants and facilitators derive satisfaction and pleasure from seeing how the group reasons from the concrete to the abstract. They get good at doing it and at seeing when and how abstract ideas should inform actions. If the goal of a philosophy discussion is to engender some kind of change in thinking and even in action, then it is as important to ask participants about how they are thinking as it is to ask them what they think.


What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

I don’t know much about the challenges P4C faces worldwide, but I know that we struggle against perceptions that what we do is only for people with a certain aptitude. That is why outreach is an extremely important part of what we do.

The best way to demystify philosophy is to get people doing philosophy together. It is also vital that we establish our groups as safe, inclusive spaces where young people can be themselves even if they don’t feel welcome in other places. This requires continuous attention and care.

Non-profit organizations like ours also live and die by the funds we can raise. Our biggest supporters are those who have directly benefited from our work, either as individuals or families. Our challenge as we grow will be to show those who have not directly benefited that “thinking about thinking” is a marketable skill that will measurably improve the lives of our participants and the life of society.


Can you give the teachers and the parents some kid of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?  Accept influence from children. Let go of the idea that you are supposed to have answers. Let go of any preconceived ideas you have about the kinds of questions children are capable of exploring. Let kids see your own curiosity. The beauty of philosophy discussions is that a facilitator is also a participant. Make sure they know that you are all in this together.

I also suggest encouraging children to identify all of the kinds of information they would need to truly answer a question to their satisfaction then heading off in the direction that interests everyone the most. Give the kids responsibility for making sure this process is a democratic one.

 Thinking about a question such as, “Why do I need to study math?” might begin with easy answers such as “to manage your money,” or “to qualify for a career in a STEM field,” but it can lead to lots of fascinating questions about things like economic models, the value and meaning of technology, why society values some jobs more than others, what math and poetry might have in common in describing the universe, knowledge for the sake of knowledge, the relationship between models and reality, and whether or not numbers are real. Often the question you start with will lead back to other questions that were raised in the beginning.

Help the group pay attention to how the discussion progresses, and retrace your steps when necessary. Don’t worry if the discussion doesn’t address every potential question that comes up. If you have these discussions regularly, you will find that questions will come up again and again, giving the group opportunities to think about them in new ways.


Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

We went into this believing that children are deep thinkers so, while I can say that their questions have delighted me, I can’t say that they have surprised me. In our early days, I did experience more anxiety than I do now about participants who speak up less frequently or rarely at all. Not only have we noticed that most participants speak up more as time goes on, we have found that their fiction, poetry, drawings, and notes indicate that they had been thinking with us all along. We check in with participants and their family members at individual conferences so we often get to see how families become their own communities of inquiry. We are very privileged to remain connected to these families over the years. I suppose we never stop being surprised by how our kids grow into their roles as philosophers. You would think we would have learned by now!




Jose Barrientos-Rastrojo: "(...) habría que preguntarse (también) qué hace una respuesta filosófica para validar el trabajo en las sesiones."

Conheci o Pepe Barrientos-Rastrojo em 2007, num congresso da APAEF (Associação Portuguesa de Aconselhamento Filosófico, onde também conheci a Celeste Machado, com quem comecei a trabalhar, uns anos depois, na área da filosofia para crianças.

O Pepe foi o orientador da minha tese de mestrado, na área dos recursos humanos e filosofia aplicada. Trabalha na Universidade de Sevilha, onde é professor e investigador. A sua tese de doutoramento versava sobre Maria Zambrano. 

Os nossos encontros têm sempre como motivação a partilha na área da filosofia aplicada, seja na consultoria filosófica ou na filosofia para crianças. Julgo que a última vez que estivemos juntos foi em Angra do Heroísmo, em Junho de 2014, durante o Encontro Internacional Filosofia para Crianças e Adolescentes: Aprender a Pensar em Comunidade, promovido pela Universidade dos Açores. 

Contactei o Pepe via twitter e perguntei se estaria disponível para responder a algumas questões. O "SIM" foi imediato. Por saber que o Pepe lê bem em português, escrevo esta introdução na minha língua natal. 

Podem acompanhar o Pepe no facebook e no twitter





¿Te acuerdas cuando fue la primera  vez que oíste hablar de filosofía para niños?

Empecé en Filosofía Aplicada individual hace un par de décadas. En aquela época, escuché referencias a Matthew Lipman y a su programa.

Mi dedicación a las consultas individuales y mi interés en autores de la orientación filosófica individual me separó, inicialmente, del interés por este campo hermano. Sin embargo, siempre pensé que ambas bebían de un mismo espíritu analítico-discursivo. Esto se ponía de manifiesto en las metodologías de trabajos: el análisis de argumentos, la creación de conceptos, el interés por las falacias, la erradicación de las opiniones, etc… Por ello, siempre regresaba a la lectura de algunos de sus textos de forma recurrente.


¿Como has empezado a trabajar en este area?

Mi dedicación definitiva a este área de conocimiento surge cuando mi Departamento de la Facultad de Filosofía me encarga la impartición de la asignatura en 2010. Un profesor del Departamento, José Agüera, se había jubilado y había trabajado mucho en la materia. De hecho, desarrolló un grupo de investigación oficial e implantó la asignatura en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. Lamentablemente, nunca nos conocimos personalmente. El hecho de que nadie se sintiese en disposición de impartir la materia y la circunstancia de que yo  era el último en elegir asignatura derivaron en que se me asignase. Hoy, no estoy dispuesto a abandonarla puesto que no existe ningún profesor que posea conocimientos téoricos y prácticos en la misma. De hecho, sólo una becaria se ha interesado en el tema. El programa básico de la materia puede consultarse en este link

El primer año la asignatura contó con cuatro alumnas, pero hemos llegado a contar con más de cincuenta. He procurado no superar una máxima de treinta alumnos para poder realizar talleres todas las semanas.

La asignatura consta con una parte teórica, una parte práctica y una aplicada. La teórica enseña los contenidos básicos y realiza prácticas de pensamiento crítico y lógica informal; la práctica realiza quince talleres reales durante el semestre y la aplicada exige que los alumnos realicen grupalmente una sesión con niños reales y lo graben en video.

Asimismo, generé un proyecto con estudiantes hace un lustro en una escuela de Sevilla. La actividad quedó reflejada en un capítulo del libro Filosofía para Niños y capacitación democrática freiriana, elaborado por Sara Mariscal Vega.


¿Consideras que la FpN es necesaria para los niños? Por qué?

Considero que es necesario el desarrollo de las habilidades de pensamiento que incentiva la Filosofía para/con niños por razones aducidas por sus teóricos: mejora de las capacidades democráticas, incremento de capacidades cognitivas y creativas, promoción de las habilidades reflexivas, lucha contra la ideología social que reduce la autonomía de los ciudadanos, quienes ni siquiera son conscientes del engaño,…

Sin embargo, pienso que el modelo de racionalidad de la disciplina es restringido. Al basarse en la tradición discursiva y analítica, la metodología de trabajo olvida otros tipos de pensamiento. En este sentido, autores como Kohan o Sátiro son modelos para la extensión de los modos de trabajo en las sesiones.

Mi propuesta pretende avanzar en este sendero y incentivar la dimensión “filosófica” de la disciplina de un sentido profundo y amplio. Esto supone el avance en el trabajo de metodologías fenomenológicas, hermenéuticas, pragmatistas, etc… Este avance supone una aplicación profunda de las metodologías de Husserl, Gadamer, Romano, Rorty, Vattimo (entre otras) de una forma seria y rigurosa. A tal fin, se precisa de un conocimiento profundo de cada uno de estos autores, de sus conceptos fundamentales, el modo en que entienden la filosofía y sus objetivos. Asimismo, se exige una cabal comprensión de cómo aplicar cada fase y conceptos de esos autores en las sesiones. Por último, se precisa creatividad y agudeza para realizar dinámicas que respeten la dimensión filosófica de esas metodologías y se mantenga el interés de los niños. Un ejemplo de ellos será la ponencia que impartiré en el próximo congreso de la Sociedad Portuguesa de Filosofía en la Universidade de Beira Interior en Covilha en septiembre de este año.

Este planteamiento usa un conjunto de metodologías que exceden la racionalidad del proyecto lipmaniano, que, considero, ha sido y es esencial hoy día, como he señalado. Un primer intento de jugar con otras racionalidades procede del taller de creación de cuento, inspirado por Jorge Sánchez-Manjavacas, y que he aplicado en varias partes del mundo. Su teoría aparecerá en las actas del último congreso de la NAACi realizado en Puebla (México) por María Teresa de la Garza y María Outón. Otro es la aplicación de las nociones maestras del pensamiento de Richard Rorty en talleres de Filosofía Aplicada para Niños y Adolescentes.


¿Hoy en día los niños en Portugal tienen muchísimas actividades en la escuela y fuera de ella. ¿Por qué debemos tener filosofía en las escuelas?

Creo que es importante también tener otras materias vinculadas con las humanidades. Todas ayudan al sujeto a desarrollar su propia identidad. La filosofía ayuda al pensamiento crítico y a la optimización de otras capacidades como el gobierno de las emociones (estoicos), la sutileza (Dusn Scoto) y la visión profunda de la realidad (María Zambrano), la comprensión del otro (Buber), de las culturas ajenas (Levinas) y de las bases de lo real (Gadamer), la recuperación de la experiencia en tanto en cuanto se está dando o el mundo de la vida (Husserl), el fomento de la solidaridad y la lucha contra la crueldad (Rorty), la comprensión de la realidad no sólo intelectivamente sino desde percepciones corporales (Merleau Ponty), el enriquecimiento de las de virtudes noéticas y la lucha contra los vicios epistemológicos (Aristóteles, Descartes) y morales o éticos (Kant) o la generación y crítica de nuevos valores como la ética ambiental y animal (Peter Singer), entre otros. El desafío está en cómo implementar esto no sólo intelectivamente sino mediante una acción que produzca cambios profundos (experienciales) en el sujeto. Precisamente, los últimos años he trabajado sobre esa Filosofía Aplicada Experiencial en adultos y niños (puede verse algo en


¿Qué hace que una pregunta sea una pregunta filosófica - desde el punto de vista de la FpN?

¡Buena pregunta!

Considero que no sólo hay que crear preguntas filosóficas. A pesar de que el trabajo con preguntas es importante en las sesiones hay que contemplar, sobre todo, cómo se implementan filosóficamente el resto de las condiciones: por ejemplo, el tiempo y el espacio, el tipo de palabras que se usan, la relación que se crea en los talleres, los modos en que se percibe la realidad, el tipo de racionalidad sobre el que se basan el diálogo, el tipo de diálogo generado. Cada uno de estos aspectos ha de dotarse de esa notación filosófica, que como digo, no sólo atañe a las preguntas. De hecho, habría que preguntarse (también) qué hace una respuesta filosófica para validar el trabajo en las sesiones.

La respuesta a la condición filosófica de preguntas, tiempos, espacios, palabras, relaciones, racionalidades o modos de diálogos, por citar sólo algunos elementos, exigiría un capítulo o libro completo. Sin embargo, detengámonos en un ejemplo para clarificarlo: Gadamer ha distinguido entre palabras instrumentales y palabras dicientes. Las primeras sirven para transmitir contenidos y corresponden a la de un manual de matemáticas que explica un problema; las segundas son transformadoras de la realidad y surgen en la poesía, pero también en el derecho cuando una ley crea una nueva realidad social. El conocimiento de esta distinción es propio del filósofo que trabaja y debería integrar el trabajo con ambos en el caso de una sesión. La distinción entre una palabra balbuciente (Zambrano), ideologizada por la sociedad (Mannheim), desfundamentadora (Deleuze) o incentivadora de la tolerancia (Rorty) deberían ser elementos conocidos por el filósofo e integrados en dinámicas particulares que permitieran al niño a agudizar su percepción.

Regresando a la pregunta filosófica, las respuestas que he leído en ocasiones sobre esto no me satisfacen (son abiertas, incentivan el pensamiento crítico) puesto que son propias de dinámicas pedagógicas y psicológicas. Quizás, me satisfaga la idea de que una pregunta filosófica es aquella que con potencia para incentivar su propia destrucción y la de sus presupuestos…


¿Cuáles son los mayores desafíos que se enfrenta hoy en día la FpN?

Como indicaba arriba, creo que el principal desafío es incentivar su dimensión filosófica mediante el desarrollo de metodologías y evitar caer en un esquema analítico en que nació. Esta afirmación no se opone a esa estructura sino que la considera limitada, reducida y reductora (cuando señala cómo únicamente válida a esta racionalidad). Nótese que habría que diferenciar entre una Lógica para Niños y una Filosofía (Aplicada) con Niños. La segunda integra la primera; la primera es sólo una modalidad de la segunda.


¿Puedes dar algunos consejos a maestros y padres para ayudarles a lidiar con las preguntas de los niños?

Estar abierto al asombro, a sus lógicas, no imponerles respuestas (error de quien empieza), asumir que nosotros mismos dependemos de ideologías de las que no somos conscientes y dejar que ellos se conviertan, a veces, en adultos de los que hemos de aprender conocimientos tan olvidados en nuestra infancia como necesarios en nuestra madurez.


¿Alguna vez has sido sorprendido con una pregunta de un niño? ¿Puedes compartir con nosotros la pregunta?

No recuerdo muchas: soy de recuerdo limitado. En fin, ¡nadie es perfecto!




Gracias, Pepe! Encontramo-nos na próxima semana, na bonita cidade da Covilhã!


"mas essa pergunta já foi feita!"

"porque é que os animais existem?" (I.) - foi o mote para um diálogo com um grupo de crianças (5/6 anos)

a partir dali verificámos diferenças e semelhanças entre animais e humanos até que surgiu outra pergunta:

"porque é que as girafas existem?" - perguntou a S. 
o G. levantou o dedo, rapidamente:
"mas essa pergunta já foi feita!"
ai sim? então...?
"quando perguntamos porque é que os animais existem também estamos a perguntar pelas girafas. as girafas estão dentro dos animais!"






filosofia no jardim de infância

perguntas e respostas


parece simples, mas é sempre um desafio, isto de me sentar no chão para filosofar com um grupo que não me conhece e que eu não conheço.

há regras para apresentar, há nomes para fixar, há palavras estranhas para "entranhar", como "filosofia". começamos com passos pequenos (e ao mesmo tempo de gigantes): exploramos o perguntar, a curiosidade, a resposta - e eis que, sem esperar, o diálogo acontece. o concordar, o não concordar. os "porquês". 

devagar, não temos pressa. 


[filosofia no jardim de infância]

filosofia para crianças :: philosophy for children :: meetings 2018

2018 parece ser "O" ano da filosofia para crianças.

um pouco por todo o mundo há encontros para partilha do que melhor se faz em torno desta temática, bem como acerca do papel da filosofia nas escolas e na educação. 




2018 seems to be philosophy for children's year.

all over the world you can find events for sharing all the best practices around #p4c and also about philosphy at schools and it's relation to education.


_____ * _____ 




Seminar on Philosophy with children / Arie Kizel and Daniela Camhy


Dep. of Learning, Instruction & Teacher Education

University of Haifa Israel

mais informações com o Dr. Arie Kizel 




25, 26 e 27 de março 

Tercer congreso GFAN - Homenaje a Eugenio Echeverria






12 a 15 de Abril

XXVIII Encuentro Iberoamericano de FpN
XX Conferència Filosofia 3/18 – Girona 2018

Girona, Espanha

informações AQUI  e AQUI 




24 e 25 de maio


Challenges and Opportunities, conference

Dinamarca, University of Southern Denmark


informações AQUI




26 e 27 de Maio


Sophia Network Meeting 2018: 


Odense, Dinamarca

informações AQUI 





de 15 a 17 de Junho 


Conferencia NAACI 2018 Conference

Educación en un mundo en crisis: Cómo puede responder la Filosofía para/con niños

Puebla, México.


mais informações, AQUI 





21 a 23 de Junho



Setúbal, Portugal

mais informações AQUI 





30 de Junho

Winchester Advanced P4C Seminar "Reaching out to the other: Democracy, Education and Philosophy for Children"

Winchester, Hampshire (Inglaterra)

mais informações AQUI 



de 9 a 11 de Julho

2018 FAPSA Conference

The Future of Philosophy in Schools






1 a 5 de Outubro


IX Colóquio Internacional de Filosofia e Educação

Filosofia e educação em errância: inventar escola, infâncias do pensar

Rio de Janeiro, Brasil 


informações AQUI 





tem conhecimento de outro evento que possa partilhar aqui?


do you know about other events that should be shared here? 


por favor envie e-mail / please let me know: 




#saveTheDate: e em 2019 o Encontro ICPIC > Colombia! 





Gilbert Burgh: "philosophy is vital to effective citizenship education or what I call democratic education"

Laura D'Olimpio talked to me about Professor Gilbert Burgh and his work related to philosophy for children (p4c). I wanted to know a little more about it, so I asked some questions - asking questions is always my favorite part @ p4c. 

Dr. Gilbert Burgh is Senior Lecturer - School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry - The University of Queensland (Australia).





Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?


In 1989, I graduated from the University of Queensland with a double major in Philosophy and I was writing a co-authored paper for a student journal on making philosophy accessible to everyone. I had an interest in ideas of philosophy as a subject in schools, but was not aware that Philosophy for Children existed. The Head of the Philosophy Department, Graham Priest, informed me that Lyn English, a professor of Mathematics in the Centre for Mathematics and Science Education at the Queensland University of Technology, had attended a residential teacher training workshop in Lorne, Victoria, on Philosophy for Children.


How did you start working with p4c?


I contacted Lyn and she invited me to attend the regular meetings she organised. In 1991, I enrolled as an honours student in Philosophy at the University of Queensland and was offered a contract teaching position as a tutor in the Division of Education at Griffith University.

 I attended a Two-day program in Philosophy for Children, conducted by Laurance Splitter and Clive Lindop, held at the Centre for Mathematics and Science Education on 21–22 Jan 1991. In 1992, I received a three-year Australian Postgraduate Research Award to enroll in PhD study in Philosophy.

I was invited by Laurance to attend a Philosophy for Children Teacher Education program in Geelong, Victoria, organised by the Centre of Philosophy for Children at the Australian Council for Educational Research/Federation of Australasian Philosophy for Children Associations, held on 1–9 Feb 1992. Ann Margaret Sharp from the Institute for the Advancement for Philosophy for Children (IAPC) at Montclair State University in New Jersey and Ron Reed from Texas were teacher trainers. Ann offered me a fellowship to participate in an International Training Workshop, held at Mendham in New Jersey, 8–18 Jan 1993.

By 1994 I became the inaugural president of the Queensland Philosophy for Children Association, and we began to conduct regular teacher training.


Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?


What is known as Philosophy for Children (P4C) started as the curriculum developed at the IAPC, which was implemented in the classroom using the community of inquiry method of teaching developed by Matthew Lipman and Ann Sharp, based on the ideas of John Dewey, Charles Peirce, George Herbert Mead and Lev Vygotsky. It has, around the world, developed in diverse directions, known by other names such as philosophy with children, philosophy in schools, philosophical inquiry in the classroom and collaborative philosophical inquiry.

Many countries have chosen to not use the IAPC curriculum materials, but have adapted or developed their own materials or used existing children’s stories, picture book or other stimulus material. What these theorists and practitioners have in common is the use of the community of inquiry as the method for engaging in philosophical inquiry with students. In this sense, students collaboratively engage in inquiry that explores questions that come from their own puzzlement about the world to follow their arguments where they lead in purposeful critical and creative discourse and reflection that can lead to self-correction, to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding.

Engaging in such inquiry allows children to question what would otherwise not be seen as contestable concepts, which provide the foundations and knowledge underpinning the disciplines that inform other school subjects mandated in the curriculum. This develops inquisitive minds, which is necessary for children’s development as active and informed citizens.


Nowadays children (@ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?


I’ve indirectly addressed this question in response to your previous question. However, I would like to add that philosophy is vital to effective citizenship education or what I call democratic education. Democratic education refers to the view that schools should embody deliberative and decision-making structures in classroom dialogue, as well as provide opportunities for experimenting with students’ political judgments coming out of student dialogue, to facilitate and foster meaningful participation to other aspects of social life by all members of the school community.

 By contrast, what I call education for democracy has as its primary goal the achievement of an educated citizenry competent to participate in democratic societies. I argue that education for democracy tends to serve political leaders who have a vested interest in maintaining the current economic and political structures to provide a means for enabling individuals, organisations, and nations to meet the challenges of an increasingly competitive world to the neglect of involving people in a continuing process of education aimed as self-actualisation and a learning society.

 Philosophy as collaborative inquiry emphasises the primacy of deliberative democracy (i.e., the development of deliberative and communicative relationships) and focusses on the radical conception of citizenship as a learning process (i.e., citizenship is experienced as a practice that connects individuals to their society, sustained through social reconstruction).


What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

Philosophical questions are open to examination and lead to further questioning and inquiry. They question the very meaning of meaning itself, or taken for granted concepts such as truth, reality, knowledge, value, beauty, justice and so forth that underpin our cultural practices, laws, political systems, religious beliefs and moral judgments.


What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?


The biggest challenge is to get philosophy on the National Curriculum either as a separate subject or as a cross curriculum priority that integrates the core subjects included in the curriculum. There have been attempts in Australia to develop a philosophy curriculum and to include philosophy in the National Curriculum, but these have not been successful. Another challenge is to include philosophy as a core component of preservice teacher education programs in Faculties of Education in universities to ensure that all teachers have a grounding in philosophy as a teaching method.


Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

Don’t answer questions, but keep the discussion open. Both children and adults – including the teacher - need to maintain an attitude of fallibilism about their worldview; to acknowledge that their beliefs can be mistaken and to explore disagreement arising from differences in beliefs. To this end, teachers need to be facilitators of classroom dialogue as well as co-inquirers with students.

 As co-inquirers teachers need to draw on their expertise as members of the teaching profession with interests in subject areas. Students come to understand that teachers have subject knowledge, but teachers need to be aware of their own limitations brought about by the contested nature of the knowledge in the discipline that informs their subject expertise, and they must also convey or model this limitation in their role as co-inquirer. In this sense, teachers need to assume the position of what is often referred to as ‘scholarly ignorance’, but they should be careful not to feign ignorance, lest students become sceptical and suspect that such ignorance is not genuine. As co-inquirers, teachers need to assume a position of genuine doubt to prompt students into their own states of genuine doubt, which ideally leads to collective doubt and collaborative inquiry.


Did the children ever surprise you with a question? Can you share that question with us?


I’m never surprised by children’s questions. I’ve learnt over the years that children who share a sense of curiosity or wonder are inclined to ask questions that seem so natural to them. Many adults, on the other hand, fail to ask such questions, or lack enthusiasm for exploring ideas prompted by children’s questions. What these adults fail to recognise is the role of imagination in the critical and creative exploration of ideas that such questions can prompt. This is vital for the reconstruction of knowledge and cultural practices when dealing with social and political issues in a democratic society.


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