Saltar para: Posts [1], Pesquisa [2]

filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

Steven Hoggins: "The reason to introduce philosophy into schools is to give children, who would not otherwise have the opportunity to, the chance to practice thinking well, about ideas involving life, knowledge, meaning, existence, ethics and language."

I met Steve @ Sophia Networking Meeting, last July, @ Aveiro. In this meeting we talked a lot about questions, because the theme was "questioning questioning". Steve shared some of his time answering my questions (than you Steve!!).

 

steve listening.jpeg

 

*

 

Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

 I was in the final month of my university teacher training course. I was in a small, rural school in Devon one lunchtime, leafing through a magazine and I came across an article written by Peter Worley of The Philosophy Foundation. He was describing the reasoning, critical thinking and evaluation of ideas that he thought philosophy could add to a child’s education. I had studied dialogic teaching methods and had combined it with some of my own experimental ‘critical thinking’ exercises but Peter’s stuff seemed like it was way ahead. 6 Months later I was in London, attending his training.

 

How did you started working with p4c?

After training, there weren’t any opportunities to teach p4c as a full-time job. I instead took a job as a regular classroom teacher. It was 3 years before enough of an opportunity arose for me to leap into the world of p4c. One spring The Philosophy Foundation offered me a contract for a few hours work. I gave up my teaching job in July and moved over to facilitating philosophy sessions as my main job. They were lean years at the beginning but I slowly got better and was offered more work. Now it is my full-time job and I couldn’t think of any better.

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

Hahaha! What a question to ask a philosopher. In the broadest sense, no, philosophy is not essential to life. However, if we think within the sphere of education, where we deem maths and science as necessary subjects of study, then yes, philosophy is as essential as mathematics. The philosophy we do in classes practices good reasoning, argumentation, critical engagement, creative thinking and effective dialogue. These areas do not stand alone either, they underpin how we think in all other subject areas. Also, as the

 

Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

We should take philosophy to children, that is the real aim, but educational institutions can help that (they are full of children!). The reason to introduce philosophy into schools is to give children, who would not otherwise have the opportunity to, the chance to practice thinking well, about ideas involving life, knowledge, meaning, existence, ethics and language. As state education is mandatory here, targeting schools gives us the best chances of getting to all children.

 

How is P4C developing in your country?

This is the kind of question I am terrible at. I don’t know the general condition of the movement. I am mostly in class teaching philosophy or helping run the charity I work for, The Philosophy Foundation. My colleagues are more involved in the wider picture. I can say that I started this job 5 years ago and at that time we only worked in a few schools. Now we work in over forty schools a week and I have got to know Sapere and Thinking Space, two other p4c charities in the UK

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

This is not something I really considered until a recent SOPHIA meeting in Portugal. The theme was ‘Questioning questioning’ so we thought about questions a great deal. I realised quite quickly that I am not primarily interested in questions. I am, however, interested in the philosophy the children are doing and I will ask whatever question serves to help them think more clearly about the ideas being discussed.

It seems to me that the philosophising doesn’t lie in the question, the philosophising is in how children go about trying to answer questions. So, a question’s ‘philosophicalness’ should be judged by how philosophical it makes the discussion. This is situational too. You can ask ‘in this a chair’ and have lengthy metaphysical discussion with some of my classes but if you ask that question in another context you will get some funny looks and absolutely no philosophy.

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

The biggest challenge is probably something we don’t realise yet. Most challenges or problems that we are aware of and understand, can usually be addressed. It’s the baffling things we didn’t anticipate that posed the greatest challenge (Trumps presidency comes to mind here!).

I have a sneaking suspicion that one of the problems we don’t yet realise or understand is how other people view p4c. I come across many head teachers, professionals and other people who have a different conception of what p4c is and what it is trying to achieve. Some conflate philosophy with psychology, some view p4c as a ‘hippy’ subject, others see any mention of philosophy as elitist or pretentious. There also are many that do understand it, but they are not the people that we should be trying to reach. Challenges to the future of p4c will come from those who misperceive it and I don’t think we know enough about who they are and how they view p4c.

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

If the questions are philosophical then engage with the ideas and be prepared to fumble through a lot of confusion. Most of the time conversation with children is led by adults, which is fine in most cases, we generally know how best to answer everyday questions in a clear direct manner. The adult informs or instructs the child and we move on. We are used to doing this because most questions require that kind of interaction.

Occasionally the question will be something philosophical (‘if I guess the answer, is that lying?’) and then you must shift into an enquiring interaction, where you ask the child what they mean, what they think lying is and what they think is the right thing to do. Their answers will be unclear and probably different from an adult’s but that’s ok, they are working through this complicated issue and should continue to try and makes sense of it for themselves, with your support.

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

As I may have let slip earlier, it’s not their questions that I think are important, it’s children’s responses to them but I did have a session with thirty 8-year-olds on making questions of a different kind. We had looked at a story, based on the Turing test. In brief it suggests that if a human was having a conversation with a computer in ordinary language and the human couldn’t tell if the responses were computer generated or human generated, then the computer could be considered ‘intelligent’ in the same way that humans are. I asked the children what questions they would ask if they were the human performing the test. Several said things along the lines of ‘Ask if it’s a human/when it was born/what it is made of!’. Then, one child said that we should ask “[increasingly] difficult maths sums, then if it got one wrong, they it’s a human”. I was surprised and delighted.

 

 

*

Who is Steve? Steve studied at the University of Wales, Lampeter gaining a BA in philosophy in 2003. Shortly after he began teaching English in both Italy and Portugal, returning to the UK to begin a career as a primary school teacher. Since he first started working within the British education system he has seen a philosophy shaped hole in the core of the curriculum and is striving to find ways for it to be filled, Joining the Philosophy Foundation
His work includes project management, development work in schools, and mentoring and doing philosophy with very small children.

Farzaneh Shahrtash: " Any question can become philosophical as long as our mind is not certain about the answer or even the meaning of the words in the question itself."

I met Farzaneh Shahrtash on YouTube, by watching this video. I left a comment on the video and got a response and the contact of Farzaneh. She is working on Iran and I was curious to know a little more about P4C in this country. 

 

*

 

Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

It was exactly 1995 we (my colleagues and I) saw this combination (Philosophy+ Children) in the internet. We started collecting the information by following the linking as far as it was possible, but we couldn’t find any instructional method. We printed every page (almost 2000 pages) and we went through each, one by one. This was our only chance in that time, because we couldn’t order any book from Iran in that time. 

 

How did you started working with p4c?

I asked everyone in the team to look for methodology in the internet. One day, one of my colleagues found an e-learning teacher training course in Australia which was conducted by a group of educators and teachers in Buranda state school. We wrote an email and asked to join the group. They accepted us and send us a story book and a video. This was our first contact. It was our greatest turning point, because we were able to see the methodology (Community of Inquiry) that we have imagined by reading the different internet materials (more than three years) in the video.

After that course we used Thinking stories 1 by Philip Cam (which was already translated and published in Iran) to run 6 classes in a private elementary school (grade 3, 4 and 5- each of two)

Then we announced the result of our practical work in the P4C panel in a world congress of philosophy in Iran in May 2002.

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

Yes. P4C is claimed (if it is done properly) to support a system of beliefs in every mankind which is justified by critical, creative and caring thinking in order to make good judgment in his/her personal life and the society which s/he lives in.

 

Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

It depends on what kind of activities or approaches you have in your school or after that.

In 1969 when P4C was introduced to American society, no communal inquiry nor critical and creative thinking skills was part of their national curriculum. However, these skills are now integrated in national curriculum in both United stated and Canada and many other countries. Maybe that is why P4C was not very popular in United States schools in the past few decades.

Even now the methodology of “community of inquiry” (COI) which was once used and defined in a particular way in P4C is modified and practiced in other subject matters as well.

So I think the only reason that P4C should still go to schools is its ethical inquiry and inquiry about other philosophical concepts, which are rarely found in other subject matters.

In my country P4C should go to our school system because our educational approach is not community of inquiry and not even inquiry itself. Critical and creative thinking skills are not integrated in our national curriculum yet (it is only on paper) so our students can gain a lot by P4C in our schools.

 

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

 Any question can become philosophical as long as our mind is not certain about the answer or even the meaning of the words in the question itself.

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

The teacher training is the biggest challenge. Teacher trainers are very few. However, to become a successful P4C teacher is a very hardworking practice and is different from becoming a mathematic or science teacher. There should be a seed of “philosophy” in both your mind and in your heart in order to become a good P4C teacher.

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

If you can make the child’s question your own question, you can help the child to deal with his/her question, otherwise you are not part of a communal inquiry and you are not helping the child in a P4C way.

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

Last week when I was trying to teach them to make a question with why, a three years old boy asked, why the ladies have to wear scarf and men don’t (in Iran)?

 

How is P4C developing in your country?

P4C was mainly introduced by Iranian reports and publishers, when the educational system and the university faculties had not even heard about it. Eventually the graduate students translate the related papers of this field for writing their thesis in education departments.

It was approximately in 2012 that the “Thinking series” was inserted as separated contexts in the national curriculum for grades 6-9. The suggested methodology in these classes was very close to “community of inquiry”. However, there are still no formal and widely accepted training courses for these classes. Each teacher is using different materials and different instruction in his/ her class.

Now after 20 years, we have some written and translated books, papers, interested graduate students and faculties, and many parents who are looking for P4C classes in city centres and schools all over the country.

 

 

19748557_821422224684201_2181516835665102749_n.jpg

 

Please follow Farzaneh's work on facebook

 

 

 

Ilse Daems: "(...) if they can think for themselves, they are able to deal with the ‘certainty of uncertainty."

I met Ilse at Sophia Network Meeting, last july @ Aveiro. Ilse had a hard time answering my questions, but I think we can all understand Ilse's words and thoughts about P4C. 

Who is Ilse? Ilse is 60 years old and lives in Antwerp | Belgium.  Left home when she was 12, did not study, has no diploma. Has worked in an advertising agency, the zoo, the trade union, politics. She is copywriter & gamedevil, a lifetime Legofanatic, extreme allergic to fish, seafood and schoolish methods and an expert in colouring way outside the lines.

 

*

 

Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

 It was five years ago. I had worked 20 years behind the scenes in politics [socialist party]. In 2012 my boss, the former mayor of Antwerp, lost the elections. So I lost my job. I was then 55 years old without any diploma and thought: ‘what the hell am I going to do the rest of my life?’ Those days I had to organize in the margins of a colloquium the child care. I did not want that this was a kind of ‘babysitting’. I did not want the kids to be ‘entertained’. I wanted them to work on the same themes as the adults, but from their angle and perspective. I asked a guy from Gent, Alex Klijn, who was recommended to me, to come and to philosophize with the children. I was thunderstruck and over the moon about what he did. He told me there was a training ‘philosophizing with children and youngsters’. I read the description of that course and thought: if I could have invented a training for myself, it would have been something like this…. So my decision was made and I lent the money to do this training because it was insuperable expensive. I asked to be admitted. That was not evident because I did not have the required bachelor diploma. They hesitated but finally agreed. I am still very grateful they gave me that chance. It was a solid and sound training with awesome, competent teachers. I followed this intensive course a year long, did my teaching practice, wrote my final papers and got the certificate. This was the most important junction in my life and has changed it completely.

 

How did you started working with p4c?

After the training I ran a few workshops and then two schools asked me if I would want to philosophize with their children. In the first school the headmistress, Judith, wants to integrate p4c in all classes and in the curriculum of her nursery and primary school. In the second one a lot of parents wanted their children ‘released’ from ‘religion’ and ‘social science’. They now get p4c and yoga instead. Those schools have no budget for p4c. So I don’t get paid. I do it as a volunteer. With pleasure. And satisfaction.

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

I think it’s very necessary. Because p4c teachs and trains them to think for themselves. And if they can think for themselves, they are able to deal with the ‘certainty of uncertainty’. To be able to cope with uncertainty, that’s the greatest gift ánd weapon we can offer them.

 

Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

 For two good reasons:

1. At school they learn a lot of ‘knowledge’. Nothing wrong with that. Knowledge can be useful. But they don’t learn the skill of the thinking process itself. They learn thougths, but they do not learn to think. Isn’t that sheer madness? Schools are nuts. They have a screw loose and have lost their marbles. P4c can help them to find those marbles again.

2. P4c is not just another umpteenth ‘activity’. It’s a free space. And that’s why children do like it so much. Their heads and agenda’s are already full. They desperately need free space.

 

 

How is P4C developing in your country?

 Slow.

Much too slow.

A lot of practioners want to change first the whole education department before they are willing to make a single p4c move.

They just sit, wait and ‘lobby.’ They lobby year in year out. That’s not my cup of tea. Think we should do the opposite and make p4c big by ‘just doing it.’ Then the education department will have to follow.

And if they are not smart enough to see and to realize that, we will have to be and stay the rebels. Rebels wíth a cause….

 

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

A philosophical question from a p4c point of view is: short, crystal-clear and ‘triggers’.

The answer may not be obvious but has to be inquired.

And the question may not be too big, general or vague.

‘Can music become wet ?’ might be a better question for a philisophical inquiry with children than the ultimate and deadly heavy ‘what is the meaning of life?’

 

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

To beat and defeat the highly fashionable ‘p4c light’.

Some people want to do p4c because ‘kids are sooooo cute, soooooo spontaneous and sooooo creative’.

They think that it’s enough to put kids in a circle and to have a vague talk about love, friendschip, the meaning of life, bullying….that kind of stuff.

They do not know the difference between a group discussion and p4c. 

They are glad with every ‘opinion’ and haven not or seldom heard the word ‘argument’ yet.

And they feel giddy and faint when a child says something ‘cute’.

For them those cuteness is the ultimate ‘mission accomplished’ signal. Brrrrrrrrrrrrrr.

To take p4c serious is to take children serious and to let them think for themselves.

They are able to do it.

 

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kid of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

 

A very simple one: talk with children and just don’t give answers all the time.

A lot of parents and teachers only talk with their children if those kids have done something naugthy.

And if children ask questions they are convinced that they have to give the answers.

If a child shows you his latest drawing and asks ‘Do you like it? Do you think its beautiful?’ ask him what he thinks.

And start a conversation about what he has drawn.

‘What is it?’

‘A boat.’

Does it look like a boat?

Why?

Why not?....

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

 

They surprise me all the time. That is their core business  But the one that surprised me the most was Aki’s question. It happened at the annual school party. Out of the blue Aki dropped in on me and said:

‘I have played enough, Ilse, for now I desperately need to philosophize a while and my question is: what is the oposite of time?‘

So we talked about the fact that we talk about time ‘all the time’ although we don’t know very well what time is.We have difficulties to define it.According to Aki we cannot say that we have time.In his eyes we are time.‘Time is all there is’ he said. And then his eyes started to shine: ‘If time is everything, than I know the opposite: nothing! And after a while: ‘But is nothing not also something?’ That’s for the next time, he said. And ran away to play.

 

299498_2168835815053_279022_n.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

Gloria Arbonés: "¡Que niñas y niños piensen mejor por ellas y ellos mismos!"

gloria 2.jpg

 

E da Catalunha chega-nos a Gloria Arbonés, do GrupIREF, para partilhar o seu olhar sobre a filosofia para crianças. Gloria, por favor, apresenta-te! 

 

"Soy profesora de Filosofía y formadora de formadores en el Proyecto Filosofia 3/18 – Filosofía para Niños.

También soy profesora asociada de la Universidad de Barcelona en asignaturas de Didáctica de la Filosofía.

Desde 2015 soy la directora del GrupIREF.

 El GrupIREF (Grupo de Innovación e Investigación en la enseñanza de la Filosofía) es una asociación sin ánimo de lucro que tiene como objetivo la traducción y adaptación de los materiales originales del Proyecto Philosophy for Children (que en Catalunya es conocido como FILOSOFIA 3/18) así como también de su difusión, la formación de profesorado, con cursos reconocidos por el Departament d’Ensenyament de la Generalitat de Catalunya, además de la creación de nuevos materiales, siempre en la línea de los creadores de esta propuesta, Matthew Lipman y Ann Margaret Sharp.

GrupIREF es miembro del ICPIC, el International Council for Philosophical Inquiry with Children y de SOPHIA. Además colabora activamente con otros centros de Philosophy for Children del mundo. Y como tal vez no sea algo conocido por todos, el GrupIREF trabaja con el currículum en catalán, que es la lengua que se habla en Catalunya."

 

*

 

 

¿Te acuerdas cuando fue la primera vez que oíste hablar de Filosofía para Niños?

 Lo recuerdo perfectamente porque ese día cambió mi rumbo profesional para siempre.

Aunque resido en Catalunya desde 2003, soy argentina. Siendo profesora de Filosofía de un Instituto, en 1989 viajé a Barcelona a un Congreso de Pedagogía Operatoria. En ese marco, fui a escuchar la ponencia de Eulàlia Bosch: “Filosofia 6/18”. Escuchándola pensé: “esto es lo que quiero hacer, esto es lo que estaba buscando”. Días después me reuní con ella, quien en aquel momento era la directora del IREF. Me orientó, me dio direcciones de correo postal (¡piensen que estamos hablando de la era preinternet!!!) de Lipman y de personas o centros de FpN en América Latina. Me regaló el Manual de “El descubrimiento de Harry Stottlemeier” y allí empezó mi camino que continuó hasta hoy!

 

¿Cómo has empezado a trabajar en el área?

 Enseguida que regresé a Argentina, me puse a probar con mis alumnas y alumnos y lo primero que vi con claridad fue que las novelas había que adaptarlas. Y me puse a ello. Enseguida que pude, fui a hacer un curso con Catherine Young Silva a Sao Paulo, en el CBFC (Centro Brasilero de Filosofia para Crianças) que Catherine dirigía. Ella misma me puso en contacto con Ann Sharp. El IAPC me dio una beca para hacer la formación en Mendham, donde además de conocer a Matthew Lipman y Ann Sharp, también tuve la suerte de aprender con Teresa de la Garza, Michel Sasseville, Eugenio Echeverría, Ron Reed, entre otros.

La escuela donde trabajaba en aquel momento (Nere Echea de Lanús, Bs. As. Argentina) confió en mí y en el Proyecto que les estaba presentando y me permitió experimentar con maestras y alumnos/as, de modo que trabajé con niñas y niños de educación infantil y primaria durante un año entero y luego formé a las maestras para que ellas continuaran la aplicación en las aulas con mi ayuda. Enseguida comencé a aplicar FpN en otra escuela, el Colegio Jacarandá, también del Gran Buenos Aires, y desde entonces… no paré nunca! La vida me trajo a Catalunya en 2003. Me incorporé enseguida al GrupIREF, gracias a la generosidad de su entonces directora (y aún pilar fundamental) Irene de Puig. Cuando ella se jubiló, asumí yo la dirección.

 

 

¿Consideras que FpN es necesaria para los niños y las niñas? ¿Por qué?

 Claro que sí, porque todos estos años de experiencia me han demostrado las diferencias entre quienes han pasado un período de tiempo trabajando con FpN y aquellos que no. Y estas diferencias se manifiestan en lo formal (el modo de dialogar, el trato entre quienes participan de una comunidad de indagación, entre otras cosas) pero también en cuestiones de fondo, reconocimiento de buenas razones, profundidad en las ideas, deseos de indagar… Y ese, en definitiva, es el objetivo que perseguimos con FpN, ¿no? ¡Que niñas y niños piensen mejor por ellas y ellos mismos!

 Por otra parte, hay muestras más objetivas que mi propia percepción que demuestran que FpN es necesaria. En 2012 el Consejo Superior de Evaluación de Departament d’Ensenyament del gobierno de Catalunya realizó un proceso de evaluación externa del Projecto Filosofia 3/18 y de su aplicación en las aulas de Catalunya a lo largo de 30 años y los resultados fueron más que elocuentes. Pueden consultar el informe en esta página

 

 

¿Hoy en día los niños en Portugal, en Catalunya tienen muchísimas actividades en la escuela y fuera de ella. ¿Por qué debemos tener la filosofía en las escuelas?

 La FpN debería tener un espacio dentro del horario escolar, como las matemáticas o las ciencias sociales. Es la única manera de conseguir que las habilidades de pensamiento se vayan haciendo hábitos y que aquello que se desarrolla en las sesiones de Filosofía, sea extrapolable al resto de asignaturas o momentos escolares. Esta sería una de las razones, pero en el informe de evaluación que comentaba antes, hay muchas razones más.

 

¿Qué es lo que hace que una pregunta sea una pregunta filosófica - desde el punto de vista de FpN?

 A priori podemos pensar que una pregunta como “¿Qué es la justicia?” es filosófica, pero que, en cambio, “¿Cómo se llama la mamá de Pimi/ Pixie?” no lo es. Sin embargo, la primera puede no generar el más mínimo interés en la comunidad de indagación y la segunda, con un buen plan de diálogo por parte de quien guía, puede derivar en un profundo intercambio filosófico sobre los nombres o la identidad.

Lo que quiero decir con esto es que lo más importante es el deseo de pensar alrededor de algo y, sobre todo, que las preguntas que funcionen como punto de partida de un diálogo partan del interés de niñas y niños. Los planes de diálogo o los ejercicios desarrollados por Lipman y Sharp que tenemos en los Manuales que acompañan las novelas son una caja de herramientas que las docentes pueden utilizar para guiar los diálogos, pero nunca deberían ser utilizados a partir del interés propio, o de pensar que x tema será de interés del grupo… ¿por qué mejor no preguntar a niñas y niños qué les interesa?

 

 

¿Cuáles son los mayores desafíos a los que se enfrenta hoy en día FpN?

 Pienso que los desafíos de hoy en día son los mismos desde hace años: primero, saber dónde estamos parados, saber de qué hablamos cuando hablamos de FpN. Es verdad que con los años han surgido miradas nuevas o reinvenciones de FpN, pero yo sigo creyendo que el proyecto parido por Lipman y Sharp sigue teniendo una potencia y una fundamentación teórica que no ha sido superada por ninguna de las nuevas propuestas, (aunque el Proyecto Noria es un “hijo” muy poderoso!!) y, por lo tanto, para mí, sigue siendo el faro de referencia.

 El segundo gran desafío es la formación de maestras y maestros. Ellxs son la clave del funcionamiento de FpN en las aulas. Diseñar un buen modelo de formación es un enorme reto. A pesar de los años que estamos trabajando con FpN en Catalunya, seguimos intentando mejorar el diseño de formación inicial y de profundización y seguimiento. Es verdad que uno de los grandes problemas es la falta de recursos económicos que permita que el profesorado se forme y se capacite de manera gratuita o subvencionada…

 

¿Puede dar algunos consejos a docente, madres y padres para ayudarles a lidiar con las preguntas de los niños y niñas?

 Cuando me hacen esta pregunta, siempre respondo lo mismo: las personas adultas debemos escuchar más y hablar menos… Si generamos espacios y momentos para conversar con nuestros alumnos o nuestras hijas, sobrinos o nietas abriremos la puerta al diálogo y al pensamiento compartido. Y si en lugar de responder a las preguntas que nos hacen, les devolvemos con otra pregunta, seguramente estaremos invitando a pensar… ¡No olvidemos que las preguntas abren y las respuestas cierran!

 

¿Alguna vez has sido sorprendido con una pregunta de un niño o niña? ¿Puedes compartir con nosotros la pregunta?

 Hace pocos días estuvimos filmando sesiones de FpN para un prestigioso programa de la televisión catalana y allí tuvimos oportunidad de presenciar construcciones de pizarras de preguntas de niñas y niños de muchas edades absolutamente fascinantes. Pero si tengo que elegir me quedaría con un par de una pizarra pensada por un grupo de 6º año de primaria a partir del trabajo con las obras de teatro finales de Pimi (traducción al catalán de Pixie):

  • ¿De dónde vienen las ideas? (Raúl)
  • Si alguien desaparece, ¿también desaparecen sus ideas? (Roser)

 Preguntas que les generó la necesidad de definir idea y de buscar ejemplos, entre muchas otras habilidades de pensamiento, además de verlos disfrutar en el diálogo. Un verdadero regalo.

Pueden ver los programas La Filo 1 y La Filo 2 (en catalán, aunque en breve los tendremos subtitulados al español)

 

 

 

 

logo_iref100.jpg

 

Maya Levanon: "Remain open and in fact encouraging, never think any question is "stupid," "silly" or "irrelevant"

Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)? "On 2000 I was giving a series of workshops on at a local college in Israel, something I thought was revolutionary... philosophizing with children.one day the department chair came to me and said: someone named Anne Sharp is coming to Israel for a conference, I want you to go and meet her. Since then my life had changed."

 

How did you started working with p4c? "So I met Anne and it was a "click of first sight" – she told me I reminded her of herself many years earlier, and told me about the EdD program and suggested I will apply. I didn’t think much of it, as I just completed my MA in philosophy and wanted to chill out from school. But something resonated. I submitted my application, letters, interview and language exam and a year later, 3 weeks before September 11th I landed in Montclair for the EdD program. There I began practicing the original program in Edgemont, with David Kennedy as well as in the Gifted and Talented program at MSU over the weekend. At that point a couple of mothers approached me asking if I can work with their children privately, as a philosophical mentor, and of course I did."

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

 

"Yes. Absolutely. With the right facilitator it is a safe space to explore one's ideas and believes. This is in addition to Lipman's and Sharp's claims regarding the importance of developing the 3 C (Critical, Creative and Caring Thinking) through philosophizing. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it is a powerful way to provide meaningful learning experience, i.e. one that is based on the learners' interests and curiosities, as well as enabling working both for one self (introvertly) as well as with others (extrovertly) and by that emphasizing these two necessary aspect of thinking."

 

Nowadays children (@ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

"Well, first there is no "should" – I think it is really depends on the context, at the end of the day. If the schedule is too busy then perhaps adding yet another activity can be overwhelming and subsequently counter productive. Philosophy is an activity that has to take place in an atmosphere of leisure in terms of time, i.e. no pressure, deadline and business.

As for the question: I think philosophy (not necessarily P4C as a © program) is the founding father of humanity, and these days that everyone goes corporate, it is crucial that we sustain the cradle of human thinking and continue nurture this aspect within our children.

With that said, I do think that doing it only as an intellectual activity is a mistake.

Children are already – at least in some countries – occupied with an increasing number of hours of academic, while subjects like music and art are disappearing from school. So having philosophy right – in my view – is about encouraging thinking through dialogue (inner and with others), exploring options and alternative, but that can – and should – happen through additional ways to intellectual conversations."

 

How is P4C developing in your country, Israel? "I know some practitioners are doing philosophy – again, not necessary P4c, but versions of it on Judaic texts (Jen Glazer, Talia Birkan). Unfortunately we still didn't get the chance working together as we all so busy in Israel….also, I read at the paper a couple of years ago that the ministry of education is planning on implementing philosophy in all school, but like everything with politician and administrators. None of this has happened – yes. 

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view? "A question that has no one "right" answer, a question that has no answer within the text, a question that invites one to explore new realms of thinking and spectrum of ideas, a question that in a way dialogue with the fundamental philosophical triad (the True, The Good and the Beauty) and everything that stems of it."

  

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

"Like all "adds on" program, I think its threat and challenge is to enter schools that are so busy with academics and standardized governmental texts. I also think that in some countries (I worked in the US for many year, didn’t experience this issue as I do in Israel) is an anti-intellectual mentality among teachers. Another challenge – again, cultural one – is that at least in Israel we experience a lot of "disciplinary" difficulties in super packed (over 33 students) classroom in which at least 33% are on Ritalin or super wild (as in breaking door or tossing chair on a teacher). That is of course not always the case, but when it is, it is a challenge to conduct a peaceful conversation in a class with no place to sit in a circle…."

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

"Remain open and in fact encouraging, never think any question is "stupid," "silly" or "irrelevant" – even if it’s a question about the illustration or the font size. Furthermore, if the child doesn’t ask, ask her yourself. And I think most importantly is not sticking to our own way of thinking, as "books are the number 1 tool to develop curiosity among children" – wrong! Computers games can be great tool also! Any game, and day trip with the family can become a narrative. And of course eating diners together…"

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us? "It happens to me with my own children every day, cant really think of one example right now."

 

 

*

FB_IMG_1483534249891.jpg

Dr. Sheinbein-Levanon is Lecturer at BBC's Department of Education. A large piece of this position includes mentoring pre-service teachers during their last year as students. She is also a Program Developer at the Teacher Leadership Project at the college's Center for Professional Development, Merkaz Keshet. Prior to this position Dr. Sheinbein-Levanon was an instructor at a Graduate teachers' program at National Louis Univesity's interdisciplinary studies in curriculum and assessment, a unique program that aims at teachers finding their unique voice through action research. Her expertise include but not limited to Community of Learning, Learning Circle, Dialogical Pedagogies, Philosophical Education with both children and educators, and Journaling. Dr. Sheinbein-Levanon is an experienced instructor in both face-to-face model as well as in online learning, with pre-service, in service teachers, and children. She appeared in multiple international conferences, where she presented her own work as served as a committee reviewer as well. 

 

[bolds are my responsability]

Bob House: "For me the most important thing is to surface the concepts behind the question."

I met Bob House on the internet and from his work at SAPERE. Bob spent 25 years in business and ended up leading a team of management consultants in London. He was chief executive of SAPERE from 2012 – 2016, during which time he tried to introduce a stronger commercial approach to the organisation as a way of promoting P4C. He now remains involved with P4C, mostly internationally and is helping to develop P4C China with an international school group in Shanghai. He is also helping create a charity that will provide accommodation for students and teachers in remote rural areas of Nepal (please take a look at http://www.solukhumbuschoolstrust.org/ ).

One of the thing’s Bob is proudest of from his time at SAPERE is his involvement in setting up the P4C International Community of Enquiry. To know more about this, please check out this two links:

 

 

*

 

Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)? "The first time I heard about P4C was in 2011. I had just finished a 25 year career in business and was looking for a role in the charity sector.  The opportunity came up to become involved with SAPERE.  At first the term “Philosophy for Children” sounded a bit elitist to me.  But when I discovered that research suggested it had a particularly beneficial effect on less-advantaged children, I became more interested.  Over time I think it is fair to say that my interest grew into a passion to see P4C used as a way to tackle disadvantage and unequal opportunity."

 

How did you start working with p4c?  "I originally worked with SAPERE on fundraising and project management.  Not long after I started, the position of chief executive became vacant and I took on that role for the next four years.  For most of that time I focused on commercial and organisational aspects of P4C in the UK.   At one point, though, we desperately needed someone to help with P4C facilitation at the new secondary school in North London.  I thought that I could have a go at doing this myself and so I did weekly sessions with two groups of 12-year-old boys there for about six months.  With no prior teaching experience it was a much bigger challenge than I expected, especially on behaviour management, but it was also the best learning experience I could possibly have had with P4C. My respect for teachers (most of whom facilitate P4C much better than I ever did) grew enormously as I saw how tough their job can be."

 Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

"I don't think I would say that P4C is strictly necessary for children but I do think it is extremely helpful.  I think it has an unusually strong capacity to help children develop personally, socially and intellectually at the same time.  The benefits in terms of reasoning, communication, collaboration and exploration of values are substantial.  I think a really talented teacher can do all of these things without the need for P4C, but for the great majority of teachers it provides a wonderful framework to achieve these benefits with their classes.

Right now, in the UK and in much of the western world, I see a particularly important role for P4C in helping to tackle extremism.   It is well established that young people become vulnerable to radicalisation if they are marginalised in society and if they do not have the capacity to question and reason well.  Through the community of enquiry, P4C has a special ability to tackle these challenges. Even if P4C conferred no other benefits, for this reason alone, I would strongly advocate that all young people should have the opportunity to experience philosophical enquiries, all the way through both primary and secondary school levels."

 

How is P4C developing in your country? "I think it is fair to say that the UK now has the most developed presence of P4C in the world.  I would estimate that over 30,000 teachers have had P4C training in the UK.   Over the last 25 years, driven by an inspired group of founders, SAPERE has managed to create an extraordinarily strong network of trainers and teachers who are both skilled in and passionate about P4C.   Whilst there have been periods of tension over SAPERE’s history, the ethos of collaboration has generally remained strong. There has been a clear sense that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts, a willingness to accept different views and a sense that SAPERE is more of a movement than just an organisation.   If I had to single out the two most important factors they would be these:

  1. the acknowledgement that P4C can never become widespread unless it is made accessible for ordinary teachers; and
  2. the recognition that you need a really well managed process of trainer development and quality assurance.

The standard of SAPERE’s training, and the way its network of trainers is managed, is of outstandingly high quality.   I think SAPERE’s unique achievement has been to keep both of those things in place as it has grown.   Recently this has been rewarded by some very well publicised EEF research in the UK and its impact on educational attainment.  This has resonated around the world and is certainly helping to drive higher and higher levels of interest in P4C.  

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

In my view there are two types of philosophical question:  

  • The first type are questions that have to do with what it is that makes life worth living; in other words they are to do with values;
  • The second set are questions that are stimulate the process of thinking and reasoning; in other words ones that lead towards metacognition.

The interesting thing about this definition is that almost any question can be considered philosophical, if the ensuing enquiry is handled in a philosophical way.  I therefore tend to think that it is the facilitation and discussion that determines whether a P4C session is philosophical, rather than the specific question that the group chooses to focus on.   Sometimes I think there is a little too much emphasis and even concern about the type of question the children come up with, and perhaps not quite enough on whether the group dealt with the question philosophically."

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

"Without question the biggest challenge is time availability: both time availability for teachers to be able to do the necessary training in P4C and availability on the timetable for the children to be able to practice it.   The curriculum is overly focused on the acquisition of knowledge and insufficiently focused on ways of thinking about the implications and consequences of that knowledge."

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kid of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions? 

"For me the most important thing is to surface the concepts behind the question.  By doing this explicitly, the questions become richer and the children have better hooks to use in their enquiry into the question.  I found that a useful technique was to ask each student to identify a single concept from the stimulus and then to write them all up on a whiteboard.  You can then ask the students to include at least one of these concept words in their proposed question.   A second useful technique is then to group these questions on Phil Cam’s question quadrant, and to ask how the group could adapt the questions to make them more philosophical.   You wouldn't want to do this every time as it can take up quite a lot of the session, but it is a useful technique to develop in some sessions."

Did the children ever surprise you with a question? Can you share that question with us? "Yes they did, and by most standards you would not call it a philosophical question.  I used a stimulus about video gaming hoping that the question might look at issues of actual versus virtual reality.  However the question that came up was: “Which is better? The Xbox or a PlayStation 4?  

I thought the session was likely to be a disaster until we started to enquire into ways in which the class could make a judgement about the question.   This led to a consideration of the criteria on which one could make that judgement and the evidence and information that would be needed to do the assessment.   In my view, that was a great example of metacognition.

There was no doubt that for that particular group of boys, this question did indeed prove central, common and contestable.  According to the definitions that SAPERE offers in its training, that made it a philosophical question. Unsurprisingly the class never reached a consensus on the answer – although a few on the boys did waver on their original convictions." 

 

Bob photo.JPG

 

Gilbert Burgh: "philosophy is vital to effective citizenship education or what I call democratic education"

Laura D'Olimpio talked to me about Professor Gilbert Burgh and his work related to philosophy for children (p4c). I wanted to know a little more about it, so I asked some questions - asking questions is always my favorite part @ p4c. 

Dr. Gilbert Burgh is Senior Lecturer - School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry - The University of Queensland (Australia).

 

*

 

 

Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

 

In 1989, I graduated from the University of Queensland with a double major in Philosophy and I was writing a co-authored paper for a student journal on making philosophy accessible to everyone. I had an interest in ideas of philosophy as a subject in schools, but was not aware that Philosophy for Children existed. The Head of the Philosophy Department, Graham Priest, informed me that Lyn English, a professor of Mathematics in the Centre for Mathematics and Science Education at the Queensland University of Technology, had attended a residential teacher training workshop in Lorne, Victoria, on Philosophy for Children.

 

How did you start working with p4c?

 

I contacted Lyn and she invited me to attend the regular meetings she organised. In 1991, I enrolled as an honours student in Philosophy at the University of Queensland and was offered a contract teaching position as a tutor in the Division of Education at Griffith University.

 I attended a Two-day program in Philosophy for Children, conducted by Laurance Splitter and Clive Lindop, held at the Centre for Mathematics and Science Education on 21–22 Jan 1991. In 1992, I received a three-year Australian Postgraduate Research Award to enroll in PhD study in Philosophy.

I was invited by Laurance to attend a Philosophy for Children Teacher Education program in Geelong, Victoria, organised by the Centre of Philosophy for Children at the Australian Council for Educational Research/Federation of Australasian Philosophy for Children Associations, held on 1–9 Feb 1992. Ann Margaret Sharp from the Institute for the Advancement for Philosophy for Children (IAPC) at Montclair State University in New Jersey and Ron Reed from Texas were teacher trainers. Ann offered me a fellowship to participate in an International Training Workshop, held at Mendham in New Jersey, 8–18 Jan 1993.

By 1994 I became the inaugural president of the Queensland Philosophy for Children Association, and we began to conduct regular teacher training.

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

 

What is known as Philosophy for Children (P4C) started as the curriculum developed at the IAPC, which was implemented in the classroom using the community of inquiry method of teaching developed by Matthew Lipman and Ann Sharp, based on the ideas of John Dewey, Charles Peirce, George Herbert Mead and Lev Vygotsky. It has, around the world, developed in diverse directions, known by other names such as philosophy with children, philosophy in schools, philosophical inquiry in the classroom and collaborative philosophical inquiry.

Many countries have chosen to not use the IAPC curriculum materials, but have adapted or developed their own materials or used existing children’s stories, picture book or other stimulus material. What these theorists and practitioners have in common is the use of the community of inquiry as the method for engaging in philosophical inquiry with students. In this sense, students collaboratively engage in inquiry that explores questions that come from their own puzzlement about the world to follow their arguments where they lead in purposeful critical and creative discourse and reflection that can lead to self-correction, to construct personal meaning and confirm mutual understanding.

Engaging in such inquiry allows children to question what would otherwise not be seen as contestable concepts, which provide the foundations and knowledge underpinning the disciplines that inform other school subjects mandated in the curriculum. This develops inquisitive minds, which is necessary for children’s development as active and informed citizens.

 

Nowadays children (@ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

 

I’ve indirectly addressed this question in response to your previous question. However, I would like to add that philosophy is vital to effective citizenship education or what I call democratic education. Democratic education refers to the view that schools should embody deliberative and decision-making structures in classroom dialogue, as well as provide opportunities for experimenting with students’ political judgments coming out of student dialogue, to facilitate and foster meaningful participation to other aspects of social life by all members of the school community.

 By contrast, what I call education for democracy has as its primary goal the achievement of an educated citizenry competent to participate in democratic societies. I argue that education for democracy tends to serve political leaders who have a vested interest in maintaining the current economic and political structures to provide a means for enabling individuals, organisations, and nations to meet the challenges of an increasingly competitive world to the neglect of involving people in a continuing process of education aimed as self-actualisation and a learning society.

 Philosophy as collaborative inquiry emphasises the primacy of deliberative democracy (i.e., the development of deliberative and communicative relationships) and focusses on the radical conception of citizenship as a learning process (i.e., citizenship is experienced as a practice that connects individuals to their society, sustained through social reconstruction).

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

Philosophical questions are open to examination and lead to further questioning and inquiry. They question the very meaning of meaning itself, or taken for granted concepts such as truth, reality, knowledge, value, beauty, justice and so forth that underpin our cultural practices, laws, political systems, religious beliefs and moral judgments.

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

 

The biggest challenge is to get philosophy on the National Curriculum either as a separate subject or as a cross curriculum priority that integrates the core subjects included in the curriculum. There have been attempts in Australia to develop a philosophy curriculum and to include philosophy in the National Curriculum, but these have not been successful. Another challenge is to include philosophy as a core component of preservice teacher education programs in Faculties of Education in universities to ensure that all teachers have a grounding in philosophy as a teaching method.

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

Don’t answer questions, but keep the discussion open. Both children and adults – including the teacher - need to maintain an attitude of fallibilism about their worldview; to acknowledge that their beliefs can be mistaken and to explore disagreement arising from differences in beliefs. To this end, teachers need to be facilitators of classroom dialogue as well as co-inquirers with students.

 As co-inquirers teachers need to draw on their expertise as members of the teaching profession with interests in subject areas. Students come to understand that teachers have subject knowledge, but teachers need to be aware of their own limitations brought about by the contested nature of the knowledge in the discipline that informs their subject expertise, and they must also convey or model this limitation in their role as co-inquirer. In this sense, teachers need to assume the position of what is often referred to as ‘scholarly ignorance’, but they should be careful not to feign ignorance, lest students become sceptical and suspect that such ignorance is not genuine. As co-inquirers, teachers need to assume a position of genuine doubt to prompt students into their own states of genuine doubt, which ideally leads to collective doubt and collaborative inquiry.

 

Did the children ever surprise you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

 

I’m never surprised by children’s questions. I’ve learnt over the years that children who share a sense of curiosity or wonder are inclined to ask questions that seem so natural to them. Many adults, on the other hand, fail to ask such questions, or lack enthusiasm for exploring ideas prompted by children’s questions. What these adults fail to recognise is the role of imagination in the critical and creative exploration of ideas that such questions can prompt. This is vital for the reconstruction of knowledge and cultural practices when dealing with social and political issues in a democratic society.

 

Art Philosopher.jpg

 

Michael Hand: "I think the biggest challenge for all advocates of philosophy in schools, whether they favour the P4C approach or not, is persuading governments and policy-makers of its educational value."

When talking with Laura D'Olimpio about P4C and this series of interviews, I had the chance to know Michael Hand and to know a little more about his vision of philosophy and P4C, nowadays.

 

*

 

Michael Hand is Professor of Philosophy of Education at the University of Birmingham. He is editor of the IMPACT pamphlet series and the Bloomsbury Philosophy of Education book series. Michael’s research interests are in the areas of moral, political, religious and philosophical education. His books include A Theory of Moral Education (Routledge, 2017), Education, Ethics and Experience: Essays in Honour of Richard Pring (Routledge, 2016), Patriotism in Schools (Wiley, 2011), Philosophy in Schools (Bloomsbury, 2008) and Is Religious Education Possible? (Bloomsbury, 2006).

  

Screenshot 2017-03-02 12.27.56.png

 

Can you recall the first time you heard about Philosophy for Children (P4C)? "It was while working on my doctoral thesis at Oxford in the late 1990s, I think. I joined the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain and started to meet people with an interest in P4C at PESGB events and conferences. Some of them were sympathetic to P4C, others fairly hostile."

Do you think P4C is necessary to children? Why? "I certainly think philosophy should form a part of every child’s education. There are problems and questions all human beings encounter in their everyday lives that cannot be adequately addressed without some acquaintance with philosophy. I’m thinking in particular of problems and questions in the areas of morality, politics and religion. I’m not wedded to the P4C approach to teaching philosophy, though. I think the community of inquiry model can be very effective, but there are other ways of teaching philosophy too."

 

From your point of view, why should we take philosophy to schools – kindergarten and early years?

 

"Education must equip children for life, and life throws up problems it is very difficult to solve without the aid of philosophy. That’s why philosophy belongs on the school curriculum. And it’s never too early to get started. As with other school subjects, there are ways to make philosophy accessible and enjoyable even for five-year-olds."

 

What makes an everyday question a philosophical question? "Most everyday questions are not philosophical, of course, but some certainly are. The ones I’m most interested in are questions about the justification of moral, political and religious norms. Why should I be a vegetarian, or vote Labour, or worship God? You can’t think seriously about questions like that without entering the realm of philosophy."

 

What’s the biggest challenge philosophy faces, nowadays? "I don’t know if it’s the biggest challenge philosophy faces, but I think important work in ethics struggles to get a public hearing because of a prevailing suspicion that norms and values are beyond the reach of reason. People accept that factual disputes can be settled rationally, by collecting and analysing relevant data, but they doubt that rational progress can be made with disagreements about values. So the arguments of ethicists are ignored, or dismissed as rationalisations of subjective preferences. I think that’s a serious problem for philosophy, at least insofar as it aspires to inform real-world decision making and policy formation."

 

And what about P4C? What are the biggest challenges that P4C faces, nowadays?

"I think the biggest challenge for all advocates of philosophy in schools, whether they favour the P4C approach or not, is persuading governments and policy-makers of its educational value. Why should room be made for philosophy in an already overcrowded curriculum? We have to provide a compelling answer to that question. In the next issue of the open access Journal of Philosophy in Schools, due out later this year, a group of us try to meet that challenge.

 

 

*

 

Michael, Laura, Pete and Angie Hobbs will be discussing "Why should philosophy be taught in schools?", next July, at the University of Birmingham. Please check out the details below: 

16997672_10154159954295426_8186188327651281209_n.j

More info: just click HERE. 

e de Espanha, bons ventos. e boas notícias

 

 

«Estimados señores:

 

Por la presente, les hacemos llegar el número 4 de la Revista Internacional de Filosofía Aplicada HASER. Durante el último año, hemos avanzado en su consolidación académica (siendo incluida en Latindex) y su difusión (alcanzando más de 7000 descargas a través de ISSU, a las que se han de añadir la difusión en papel, en bibliotecas y las descargas por otros medios.

 

Es posible acceder al contenido completo en http://issuu.com/jbbr/docs/haser4.0  y les agradecemos su difusión en cualquier web o foro a los que pertenezcan.

 

Les informamos que la edición precedente ha contado con la edición invitada de Joan Mendez, presidente de la AFPC, y Juan Carlos Gómez, tesorero de la citada institución; si bien, incluye también una investigación predoctoral de Francisco Barrera y la de Máster de la especialista portuguesa Joana Sousa. 

 

Quedamos abiertos a sus aportaciones en forma de artículos, reseñas o resúmenes de eventos para próximos números.

Saludos cordiales,

 

HASER»



o contacto da revista é haser@us.es

Psicologia na Actualidade: já saiu o #6

 

«Nós por cá celebramos um ano de Revista. A 1ª Revista de Psicologia Digital em Portugal com esta dimensão.
O Papel da Psicologia merece um grande destaque nas nossas vidas.
Abrangemos três mundos, o mundo académico, o mundo das organizações e o mundo das pessoas.
Criamos pontes para o conhecimento, sendo que a partilha deste conhecimento é de sempre a nossa principal prioridade e chegar a todos sempre foi o nosso lema.
Queremos agradecer a todos os autores que colaboram desde o 1º minuto deste projecto e a toda a nossa comissão científica.
Numa altura de crise disseram-nos vários vezes:" não se metam nisso", " dá muito trabalho!","nesta altura um investimento destes!", entre muitas outras mensagens deste tipo, mas a equipa editorial deste projecto acreditou e com investimento próprio (dos editores) e a ajuda de professores de várias universidades do País, psicólogos de várias áreas, investigadores, cronistas, economistas, médicos-psiquiatras, ensaistas,juízes,procuradores,advogados..., juntos conseguimos que este projecto desse frutos.
Aos nossos assinates um grande abraço de agradecimento, agradecemos ainda todos os posts feitos no Facebook sobre este projecto que é de todos.
Porque gostamos de pessoas esta revista é para si.

A equipa editorial»

conheça este projecto AQUI e AQUI. no nº 6 podem encontrar um artigo da minha autoria e que se enquadra na investigação por mim realizada na tese de mestrado, que cruza gestão de recursos humanos com filosofia aplicada.

Mais sobre mim

foto do autor

Subscrever por e-mail

A subscrição é anónima e gera, no máximo, um e-mail por dia.

@ creative mornings lx

Arquivo

  1. 2017
  2. J
  3. F
  4. M
  5. A
  6. M
  7. J
  8. J
  9. A
  10. S
  11. O
  12. N
  13. D
  14. 2016
  15. J
  16. F
  17. M
  18. A
  19. M
  20. J
  21. J
  22. A
  23. S
  24. O
  25. N
  26. D
  27. 2015
  28. J
  29. F
  30. M
  31. A
  32. M
  33. J
  34. J
  35. A
  36. S
  37. O
  38. N
  39. D
  40. 2014
  41. J
  42. F
  43. M
  44. A
  45. M
  46. J
  47. J
  48. A
  49. S
  50. O
  51. N
  52. D
  53. 2013
  54. J
  55. F
  56. M
  57. A
  58. M
  59. J
  60. J
  61. A
  62. S
  63. O
  64. N
  65. D
  66. 2012
  67. J
  68. F
  69. M
  70. A
  71. M
  72. J
  73. J
  74. A
  75. S
  76. O
  77. N
  78. D
  79. 2011
  80. J
  81. F
  82. M
  83. A
  84. M
  85. J
  86. J
  87. A
  88. S
  89. O
  90. N
  91. D
  92. 2010
  93. J
  94. F
  95. M
  96. A
  97. M
  98. J
  99. J
  100. A
  101. S
  102. O
  103. N
  104. D
  105. 2009
  106. J
  107. F
  108. M
  109. A
  110. M
  111. J
  112. J
  113. A
  114. S
  115. O
  116. N
  117. D
  118. 2008
  119. J
  120. F
  121. M
  122. A
  123. M
  124. J
  125. J
  126. A
  127. S
  128. O
  129. N
  130. D
  131. 2007
  132. J
  133. F
  134. M
  135. A
  136. M
  137. J
  138. J
  139. A
  140. S
  141. O
  142. N
  143. D
  144. 2006
  145. J
  146. F
  147. M
  148. A
  149. M
  150. J
  151. J
  152. A
  153. S
  154. O
  155. N
  156. D