I met Ilse at Sophia Network Meeting, last july @ Aveiro. Ilse had a hard time answering my questions, but I think we can all understand Ilse's words and thoughts about P4C.
Who is Ilse? Ilse is 60 years old and lives in Antwerp | Belgium. Left home when she was 12, did not study, has no diploma. Has worked in an advertising agency, the zoo, the trade union, politics. She is copywriter & gamedevil, a lifetime Legofanatic, extreme allergic to fish, seafood and schoolish methods and an expert in colouring way outside the lines.
Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?
It was five years ago. I had worked 20 years behind the scenes in politics [socialist party]. In 2012 my boss, the former mayor of Antwerp, lost the elections. So I lost my job. I was then 55 years old without any diploma and thought: ‘what the hell am I going to do the rest of my life?’ Those days I had to organize in the margins of a colloquium the child care. I did not want that this was a kind of ‘babysitting’. I did not want the kids to be ‘entertained’. I wanted them to work on the same themes as the adults, but from their angle and perspective. I asked a guy from Gent, Alex Klijn, who was recommended to me, to come and to philosophize with the children. I was thunderstruck and over the moon about what he did. He told me there was a training ‘philosophizing with children and youngsters’. I read the description of that course and thought: if I could have invented a training for myself, it would have been something like this…. So my decision was made and I lent the money to do this training because it was insuperable expensive. I asked to be admitted. That was not evident because I did not have the required bachelor diploma. They hesitated but finally agreed. I am still very grateful they gave me that chance. It was a solid and sound training with awesome, competent teachers. I followed this intensive course a year long, did my teaching practice, wrote my final papers and got the certificate. This was the most important junction in my life and has changed it completely.
How did you started working with p4c?
After the training I ran a few workshops and then two schools asked me if I would want to philosophize with their children. In the first school the headmistress, Judith, wants to integrate p4c in all classes and in the curriculum of her nursery and primary school. In the second one a lot of parents wanted their children ‘released’ from ‘religion’ and ‘social science’. They now get p4c and yoga instead. Those schools have no budget for p4c. So I don’t get paid. I do it as a volunteer. With pleasure. And satisfaction.
Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?
I think it’s very necessary. Because p4c teachs and trains them to think for themselves. And if they can think for themselves, they are able to deal with the ‘certainty of uncertainty’. To be able to cope with uncertainty, that’s the greatest gift ánd weapon we can offer them.
Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?
For two good reasons:
1. At school they learn a lot of ‘knowledge’. Nothing wrong with that. Knowledge can be useful. But they don’t learn the skill of the thinking process itself. They learn thougths, but they do not learn to think. Isn’t that sheer madness? Schools are nuts. They have a screw loose and have lost their marbles. P4c can help them to find those marbles again.
2. P4c is not just another umpteenth ‘activity’. It’s a free space. And that’s why children do like it so much. Their heads and agenda’s are already full. They desperately need free space.
How is P4C developing in your country?
Much too slow.
A lot of practioners want to change first the whole education department before they are willing to make a single p4c move.
They just sit, wait and ‘lobby.’ They lobby year in year out. That’s not my cup of tea. Think we should do the opposite and make p4c big by ‘just doing it.’ Then the education department will have to follow.
And if they are not smart enough to see and to realize that, we will have to be and stay the rebels. Rebels wíth a cause….
What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?
A philosophical question from a p4c point of view is: short, crystal-clear and ‘triggers’.
The answer may not be obvious but has to be inquired.
And the question may not be too big, general or vague.
‘Can music become wet ?’ might be a better question for a philisophical inquiry with children than the ultimate and deadly heavy ‘what is the meaning of life?’
What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?
To beat and defeat the highly fashionable ‘p4c light’.
Some people want to do p4c because ‘kids are sooooo cute, soooooo spontaneous and sooooo creative’.
They think that it’s enough to put kids in a circle and to have a vague talk about love, friendschip, the meaning of life, bullying….that kind of stuff.
They do not know the difference between a group discussion and p4c.
They are glad with every ‘opinion’ and haven not or seldom heard the word ‘argument’ yet.
And they feel giddy and faint when a child says something ‘cute’.
For them those cuteness is the ultimate ‘mission accomplished’ signal. Brrrrrrrrrrrrrr.
To take p4c serious is to take children serious and to let them think for themselves.
They are able to do it.
Can you give the teachers and the parents some kid of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?
A very simple one: talk with children and just don’t give answers all the time.
A lot of parents and teachers only talk with their children if those kids have done something naugthy.
And if children ask questions they are convinced that they have to give the answers.
If a child shows you his latest drawing and asks ‘Do you like it? Do you think its beautiful?’ ask him what he thinks.
And start a conversation about what he has drawn.
‘What is it?’
Does it look like a boat?
Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?
They surprise me all the time. That is their core business But the one that surprised me the most was Aki’s question. It happened at the annual school party. Out of the blue Aki dropped in on me and said:
‘I have played enough, Ilse, for now I desperately need to philosophize a while and my question is: what is the oposite of time?‘
So we talked about the fact that we talk about time ‘all the time’ although we don’t know very well what time is.We have difficulties to define it.According to Aki we cannot say that we have time.In his eyes we are time.‘Time is all there is’ he said. And then his eyes started to shine: ‘If time is everything, than I know the opposite: nothing! And after a while: ‘But is nothing not also something?’ That’s for the next time, he said. And ran away to play.
Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)? "On 2000 I was giving a series of workshops on at a local college in Israel, something I thought was revolutionary... philosophizing with children.one day the department chair came to me and said: someone named Anne Sharp is coming to Israel for a conference, I want you to go and meet her. Since then my life had changed."
How did you started working with p4c? "So I met Anne and it was a "click of first sight" – she told me I reminded her of herself many years earlier, and told me about the EdD program and suggested I will apply. I didn’t think much of it, as I just completed my MA in philosophy and wanted to chill out from school. But something resonated. I submitted my application, letters, interview and language exam and a year later, 3 weeks before September 11th I landed in Montclair for the EdD program. There I began practicing the original program in Edgemont, with David Kennedy as well as in the Gifted and Talented program at MSU over the weekend. At that point a couple of mothers approached me asking if I can work with their children privately, as a philosophical mentor, and of course I did."
Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?
"Yes. Absolutely. With the right facilitator it is a safe space to explore one's ideas and believes. This is in addition to Lipman's and Sharp's claims regarding the importance of developing the 3 C (Critical, Creative and Caring Thinking) through philosophizing. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it is a powerful way to provide meaningful learning experience, i.e. one that is based on the learners' interests and curiosities, as well as enabling working both for one self (introvertly) as well as with others (extrovertly) and by that emphasizing these two necessary aspect of thinking."
Nowadays children (@ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?
"Well, first there is no "should" – I think it is really depends on the context, at the end of the day. If the schedule is too busy then perhaps adding yet another activity can be overwhelming and subsequently counter productive. Philosophy is an activity that has to take place in an atmosphere of leisure in terms of time, i.e. no pressure, deadline and business.
With that said, I do think that doing it only as an intellectual activity is a mistake.
Children are already – at least in some countries – occupied with an increasing number of hours of academic, while subjects like music and art are disappearing from school. So having philosophy right – in my view – is about encouraging thinking through dialogue (inner and with others), exploring options and alternative, but that can – and should – happen through additional ways to intellectual conversations."
How is P4C developing in your country, Israel? "I know some practitioners are doing philosophy – again, not necessary P4c, but versions of it on Judaic texts (Jen Glazer, Talia Birkan). Unfortunately we still didn't get the chance working together as we all so busy in Israel….also, I read at the paper a couple of years ago that the ministry of education is planning on implementing philosophy in all school, but like everything with politician and administrators. None of this has happened – yes.
What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view? "A question that has no one "right" answer, a question that has no answer within the text, a question that invites one to explore new realms of thinking and spectrum of ideas, a question that in a way dialogue with the fundamental philosophical triad (the True, The Good and the Beauty) and everything that stems of it."
What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?
"Like all "adds on" program, I think its threat and challenge is to enter schools that are so busy with academics and standardized governmental texts. I also think that in some countries (I worked in the US for many year, didn’t experience this issue as I do in Israel) is an anti-intellectual mentality among teachers. Another challenge – again, cultural one – is that at least in Israel we experience a lot of "disciplinary" difficulties in super packed (over 33 students) classroom in which at least 33% are on Ritalin or super wild (as in breaking door or tossing chair on a teacher). That is of course not always the case, but when it is, it is a challenge to conduct a peaceful conversation in a class with no place to sit in a circle…."
Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?
"Remain open and in fact encouraging, never think any question is "stupid," "silly" or "irrelevant" – even if it’s a question about the illustration or the font size. Furthermore, if the child doesn’t ask, ask her yourself. And I think most importantly is not sticking to our own way of thinking, as "books are the number 1 tool to develop curiosity among children" – wrong! Computers games can be great tool also! Any game, and day trip with the family can become a narrative. And of course eating diners together…"
Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us? "It happens to me with my own children every day, cant really think of one example right now."
Dr. Sheinbein-Levanon is Lecturer at BBC's Department of Education. A large piece of this position includes mentoring pre-service teachers during their last year as students. She is also a Program Developer at the Teacher Leadership Project at the college's Center for Professional Development, Merkaz Keshet. Prior to this position Dr. Sheinbein-Levanon was an instructor at a Graduate teachers' program at National Louis Univesity's interdisciplinary studies in curriculum and assessment, a unique program that aims at teachers finding their unique voice through action research. Her expertise include but not limited to Community of Learning, Learning Circle, Dialogical Pedagogies, Philosophical Education with both children and educators, and Journaling. Dr. Sheinbein-Levanon is an experienced instructor in both face-to-face model as well as in online learning, with pre-service, in service teachers, and children. She appeared in multiple international conferences, where she presented her own work as served as a committee reviewer as well.
Nos dias 3 e 4 de Julho, filósofos, académicos e profissionais relacionados com a educação irão reunir-se em Aveiro, no Colégio D. José I, para a 11ª Reunião Anual SOPHIA: The European Foundation for the Advancement of Doing Philosophy with Children.
Filosofia para Crianças é um termo geral que abrange diferentes metodologias para envolver as crianças em diálogos de grupo, sobre tópicos filosóficos. Desde que foi criada, em 1993, a rede SOPHIA comprometeu-se a promover e a sustentar, de forma solidária, o desenvolvimento da filosofia nas escolas, pela Europa. Todos os anos, a fundação organiza uma reunião numa cidade europeia, com o objectivo de trabalhar o desenvolvimento da filosofia nas escolas, naquele país, partilhando as boas práticas com facilitadores de toda a Europa.
A reunião desde ano terá lugar no Colégio D. José I, em Aveiro, tendo sido acolhida por Joana Rita Sousa e Celeste Machado, do projecto filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade, Será possível aos participantes participar em oficinas e ouvir conferências levadas a cabo por académicos reconhecidos e facilitadores com prática no terreno, incluindo Catherine McCall, uma das fundadoras da SOPHIA.
O tema da reunião é “Questioning questioning”. As conferências e as oficinas irão explorar o tema do questionamento relativamente a tópicos como a liberdade de expressão; serão abordados aspectos metodológicos relacionados com o tipo de questões que os professores poderão utilizar em ambiente de sala de aula.
Emma Worley, co-CEO da The Philosophy Foundation e membro dos quadros da SOPHIA afirmou que “SOPHIA é uma organização que visa trazer uma atitude plural para a filosofia nas escolas. A reunião é uma excelente oportunidade para o treino de professores, bem como para aprender sobre práticas filosóficas na sala de aula.”
Joana Rita Sousa e Celeste Machado consideram que "o acolhimento da reunião em Portugal permitirá o diálogo entre os facilitadores e investigadores; constituindo-se como um momento de partilha essencial para o desenvolvimento das práticas, em torno da filosofia para crianças." Ambas as investigadoras têm vindo a realizar encontros nesta área, desde 2011: Sentir Pensamentos | Pensar Sentidos. "Consideramos que a presença da rede SOPHIA em Portugal é uma oportunidade única para reforçar o diálogo entre os professores e educadores que estão a trabalhar nesta área, em Portugal e não só."
A participação na reunião está sujeita a inscrição prévia, através do link:
Luis Alberto: actual presidente el Centro de filosofía para Niños de España. Es funcionario en la rama de las telecomunicaciones e informática, donde también ha ejercido como formador. Graduado en Educación social, Profesor de Teología y moral Católicas. Es experto en gestión en Instituciones Públicas. Su formación permanente abarca además de los estrictamente profesional, las ramas de historia, antropología, sociología, moral, ética y filosofía. Es miembro de número de la Institución de Estudios Complutenses (IECC), de la OFS, de la asociación Alberta, Asociación Fénix de ayuda al drogodependiente a sus familias, Asociación Balcania (ayuda a los Balcanes), Rastrillo solidario, formación del voluntariado…
Miembro fundador y primer secretario de "Rescoldos, revista de diálogo social". Ha publicado en Rescoldos, en la revista Aprender a pensar de Filosofía para niños y en semanarios y periódicos locales. También ha publicado como coautor en algún libro de relatos. Ha trabajado en el movimiento de FAPAS, en entornos sociales como la drogodependencia, la cárcel, alfabetización, escuela de adultos, talleres de inserción laboral y social, mediación familiar, movimiento de barrios, acogimiento, grupos de crecimiento, formación del voluntariado y como cooperante internacional, talleres de filosofía para niños y en obras sociales de la Iglesia.
¿Te acuerdas cuando fue la primera vez que oíste hablar de filosofía para niños? “En 1996, después de mi trabajo, ayudaba como voluntario en algunas organizaciones y descubrí que debería prepararme para afrontar con mejor preparación la tarea necesaria para colaborar con los más desfavorecidos de la mejor manera posible. Me matriculé en Educación Social en Alcalá de Henares, dónde conocí la asignatura de “Aprender a Pensar” Filosofía para niños, que impartía el profesor Gonzalo Romero. A través de la asignatura y de la gente que fui conociendo de Filosofía para niños, el programa me fue seduciendo hasta el entusiasmo. Fue en el encuentro de Filosofía para niños en Logroño (Rioja) en 1997 donde decidí incorporarme como socio al centro de filosofía para niños.”
¿Cómo has empezado a trabajar en el área? “Empecé trabajando el programa en circunstancias de educación no formal en el mundo de la drogadicción, marginación y pobreza. Y por supuesto en todas las edades. Constaté que era una herramienta muy potente, que hacia participar y aprender, desde un método socrático que fomentaba las habilidades del pensamiento y que no presuponía preparación filosófica previa.”
¿Consideras que la FpN es necesaria para los niños? ¿Y por qué? “Considero que aprender a pensar es uno de los mejores programas, sino el mejor, para fomentar en los niños las habilidades del pensamiento, o destrezas cognitivas, las competencias y actitudes filosóficas. Necesarias para poder conseguir el dialogo filosófico. Se puede profundizar en el dialogo filosófico a través de buenas preguntas, que generen una radicalización de la respuesta, en el sentido de implicarse como persona en lo que dices, habiendo escuchado activamente al otro. Todo esto genera metacognición.Y es ese plus de pensamiento, el que es generado con el dialogo filosófico en el aula, el que es necesario para el desarrollo de todo el currículo de la escuela. Por otro lado se reconoce al otro, sea quien sea, como ser humano. Como igual, como persona. Una cosa es la persona y otra es la opinión.”
Hoy en día los niños en Portugal tienen muchísimas actividades en la escuela e fuera de ella.¿Por quédebemos tener la filosofía en las escuelas?
“Ya Lipman nos previno contra la escuela que enseña a memorizar muchas cosas, que después de olvidan. Y aprendemos muchas cosas más o menos mecánicamente. No digo que eso sea malo en sí mismo, sino cómo hacerlo. Todo lo que se aprende debe tener una base necesaria e imprescindible para apoyarse, sin los números y las sumas no podremos llegar a las ecuaciones y el cálculo infinitesimal, sin los pentagramas no podemos llegar a Verdi, si la caligrafía no podremos llegar a Cervantes. La filosofía para crea en el colegio unas bases para poder pensar bien, críticamente, para poder pensar juntos en comunidad, para poder pensar creativamente, para poder pensar éticamente, desde el cuidado del pensamiento y el cuidado del otro.Pone encima de la mesa un nivel de exigencia que no es paternalista, es necesario para darse las circunstancias de ciudadanía pensante y cuidante del otro desde la escuela. El dialogo filosófico ayudará a la formación integral de la persona.”
¿Qué es lo que hace que una pregunta sea una pregunta filosófica desde el punto de vista de la FpN? “Cuando terminaban mis primeras sesiones con filosofía para niños, después de un buen rato de discusión filosófica, invariablemente me preguntaban y…Profe ¿Cuál es la verdad? ¿Cuál es la respuesta a la pregunta o preguntas? Si ha generado esa inquietud y controversia, si la pregunta se ha quedado sin cerrar después de discutir sobre ella, si ha planteado distintas hipótesis, si esas “maneras de ver o interpretar” se han ido modificando en cada uno a través del dialogo compartido, esa es una pegunta filosófica. Si nos conmueve a expresarnos sobre nuestra manera de interpretar el arte, las emociones, el amor, la belleza, la política, el ser… Nos conmina a aprender y aprehender de los demás, eso es una pregunta filosófica.”
¿Cuáles son los mayores desafíos que se enfrenta hoy en día FpN? "Desde mi punto de vista hay varios desafíos importantes, que al final convergen en una misma respuesta negativa. El intento de desaparición de de filosofía del currículo formal, por ser una asignatura poco útil o poco utilitarista (No sirve para nada), hace que surjan muchas respuestas desde la filosofía como la filosofía práctica, donde caben muchas concepciones de hacer filosofía “útil”, y muchos compañeros ven en ese trabajo la solución al problema, sin querer ahondar en ello, existe el peligro de etiquetar al proyecto de Filosofía para niños como “Filosofía práctica”. La desaparición de la asignatura será un hándicap ara poder implementar el programa en la educación formal."
¿Puede dar algunos consejos a maestros y padres para ayudarles a lidiar con las preguntas de los niños?
"Cuando construimos juntos, la mirada cambia, la manera de preguntar cambia, las preguntas cambian. Los chicos en este caso son los responsables de sus propias preguntas, son justo las que les sirven para su propio aprendizaje y el de los demás. Tienen el modo, el tiempo y la autocorrección adecuados y necesarios para su propia comprensión. Padre, profe, tu tiempo, tu manera y tu velocidad te valen a ti, no a ellos. El profesor debe facilitar el dialogo, ayudarle a hacer buenas preguntas, a respetar a os otros y sus ideas."
¿Alguna vez has sido sorprendido con una pregunta de un niño? ¿Puedes compartir con nosotros la pregunta? "Al principio todo eran sorpresas, que comentaba cada noche con mi mujer en casa, pensaba que no me podía sorprender nada, pero el otro día, en una comunidad formada por gente diversa en la que había algunos de los que denominamos discapacitados intelectuales paso la siguiente anécdota. Respondía a una pregunta sobre porque quería participar en un taller de Filosofía para niños con discapacidad intelectual y entre otras cosas dije que quería conocerlos bien…. Una chica con (supuesta) discapacidad intelectual me interrumpió y me dijo que primero me “conociera a mí mismo”… ¿te conoces a ti mismo?"
e quando os mais pequenos pedem sugestões de nome para o boneco que estão a desenhar? é isso que explica que os senhores filósofos sejam chamados para a aula de filosofia, do 1º ano, 1º ciclo - e os seus nomes apareçam no quadro!
Can you recall the first time you heard about Philosophy for Children (P4C)? "It was while working on my doctoral thesis at Oxford in the late 1990s, I think. I joined the Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain and started to meet people with an interest in P4C at PESGB events and conferences. Some of them were sympathetic to P4C, others fairly hostile."
Do you think P4C is necessary to children? Why? "I certainly think philosophy should form a part of every child’s education. There are problems and questions all human beings encounter in their everyday lives that cannot be adequately addressed without some acquaintance with philosophy. I’m thinking in particular of problems and questions in the areas of morality, politics and religion. I’m not wedded to the P4C approach to teaching philosophy, though. I think the community of inquiry model can be very effective, but there are other ways of teaching philosophy too."
From your point of view, why should we take philosophy to schools – kindergarten and early years?
"Education must equip children for life, and life throws up problems it is very difficult to solve without the aid of philosophy. That’s why philosophy belongs on the school curriculum. And it’s never too early to get started. As with other school subjects, there are ways to make philosophy accessible and enjoyable even for five-year-olds."
What makes an everyday question a philosophical question? "Most everyday questions are not philosophical, of course, but some certainly are. The ones I’m most interested in are questions about the justification of moral, political and religious norms. Why should I be a vegetarian, or vote Labour, or worship God? You can’t think seriously about questions like that without entering the realm of philosophy."
What’s the biggest challenge philosophy faces, nowadays? "I don’t know if it’s the biggest challenge philosophy faces, but I think important work in ethics struggles to get a public hearing because of a prevailing suspicion that norms and values are beyond the reach of reason. People accept that factual disputes can be settled rationally, by collecting and analysing relevant data, but they doubt that rational progress can be made with disagreements about values. So the arguments of ethicists are ignored, or dismissed as rationalisations of subjective preferences. I think that’s a serious problem for philosophy, at least insofar as it aspires to inform real-world decision making and policy formation."
And what about P4C? What are the biggest challenges that P4C faces, nowadays?
"I think the biggest challenge for all advocates of philosophy in schools, whether they favour the P4C approach or not, is persuading governments and policy-makers of its educational value. Why should room be made for philosophy in an already overcrowded curriculum? We have to provide a compelling answer to that question. In the next issue of the open access Journal of Philosophy in Schools, due out later this year, a group of us try to meet that challenge.
Michael, Laura, Pete and Angie Hobbs will be discussing "Why should philosophy be taught in schools?", next July, at the University of Birmingham. Please check out the details below:
M: joana, joana, já sabemos como é que aquilo se chama. (eu): aquilo, o quê? M: o mistério. chama-se ponto de interrogação! a nossa professora ensinou-nos. (eu): e agora? deixamos de lhe chamar mistério?
um dos exercícios mais interessantes de se fazer, no âmbito da filosofia para crianças, é o de avaliar criticamente o ponto de vista do outro, sob a forma de uma ideia ou de um argumento apresentado.
pegar na ideia do outro e explorá-la - ainda que não concordemos com ela - faz-nos assumir um ponto de vista diferente sobre o nosso próprio ponto de vista. é como se saíssemos de dentro de nós para nos colocarmos no lugar do outro, assumindo a sua ideia e deixando a nossa em suspenso.
em conversa com algumas pessoas com quem estou a desenvolver um projecto específico, falámos da forma como olhar a Terra, a partir do espaço, muda a forma de estar, de ser, de pensar das pessoas que têm essa experiência. lembrei-me do Mike Massimino, que ouvi no web summit 2016 a falar da sua experiência enquanto astronauta.
fica aqui a sugestão para um exercício de "assumir outro ponto de vista" - a partir de um dado adquirido para muitos de nós: o mapa mundo e a Europa que está ali mesmo ao centro.
pedia ajuda no twitter e no facebook e chegaram-me algumas imagens que desafiam o nosso ponto de vista habitual.
afinal, quantas formas há de olhar para o mundo?
como é que um mapa pode determinar a forma como vejo o mundo?
tenho o mundo todo à minha volta? serei o centro do mundo?
one of the most interesting exercises to do in the philosophy of children is to critically evaluate the point of view of the other in the form of an idea or a presented argument.
picking on the other's idea and exploiting it-even if we do not agree with it-makes us take a different view of our own point of view. It is as if we come out from within ourselves to put ourselves in the place of the other, assuming his idea and leaving ours in suspense.
in a conversation I had with some people with whom I am developing a specific project, we talked about how to look at the Earth, from space, changes the way of being, of being, of thinking of the people who have this experience. I remembered Mike Massimino, who heard on the web summit 2016 about his experience as an astronaut.
here is the suggestion for an exercise of "assuming other point of view" - from a fact acquired for many of us: the world map and Europe that is right there in the center.
I asked for help on twitter and facebook and some images came to me that defied our usual point of view.
After all, how many ways are you going to look at the world? How can a map determine how I see the world? I have the whole world around me? Will I be the center of the world?
(if the english is not so perfect, please excuse me. I asked for google translator's help)