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filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

Curso Internacional de Filosofía, Literatura, Arte e Infancia (FLAI)

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6 7 y 8 de julio en Albarracín (Teruel, España).
La pregunta del año: ¿Qué quiere y qué puede la literatura infantil y juvenil? 
Ponentes: Clémentine Beauvais, Adolfo Córdova, Ellen Duthie y Javier Sáez Castán. 
Organiza: Fundación Santa María de Albarracín
Patrocina: Diputación Provincial de Teruel
Codirigen: Ellen Duthie, Daniela Martagón y Raquel Martínez Uña
Más información: www.flaialbarracin.com
Twitter: @albarracin_flai

 

filosofia para crianças e jovens :: bibliografia e "linkografia"

partilho alguma bibliografia e links com recursos para quem quer investigar um pouco mais sobre filosofia (para crianças e jovens)

 

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bibliografia

Barrientros Rastrojo J. (2016) La experiencialidad como respuesta a la tendencia analítica de la filosofía para niños. Childhood & Philosophy, vol. 12, nº 25, acedido em 21 de Novembro de 2016, em http://www.e-publicacoes.uerj.br/index.php/childhood/article/view/23032/18830  

 

Brenifier O. (2010). How to avoid children’s questions.

Brenifier O. (2010). Knowing what we are saying. 

 

Brenifier O. (2002). Enseigner par le débat. – França: CRDP de Bretagne.

 

Brenifier O.  (2007). La pratique de la philosophie à l’école primaire - Toulouse: Sedrap.

 

CARNEIRO T. M. Os alunos são os professores – o desafio da auto-gestão, acedido em fevereiro 5, 2016, em http://aartedodialogo.blogspot.pt/2014/11/os-alunos-sao-os-professores-o-desafio.html

 

Burroughs M.D., Lone J. M. (2016) Philosophy in Education  - Questioning and Dialogue in Schools – Estados Unidos da América: Rowman & Littlefield

 

Chandley N.; Lewis L (2012). Philosophy for Children Through the Secondary Curriculum – Londres: Continuum

 

Church M., Morrison K., Ritchart R. (2011). Making Thinking Visible – Estados Unidos da América: Wiley

 

Daniel M-F. (2000) A Filosofia e as Crianças – São Paulo: Nova Alexandria

 

Fisher R. (2013). Teachink Thinking – Philosophical Enquiry in the Classroom – Londres, Nova Iorque: Bloomsburry

 

Gagnon M., Sasseville M. (2015) Penser Ensemble à l’École – Canadá: PUL

 

Gregory M. R., Haynes J., Murris K. (2017) The Routledge International Handbook of Philosophy for Children – Nova Iorque: Routledge

 

Kennedy D (2004).  The philosopher as Teacher – The role of a facilitator in a community of philosophical inquiry. Metaphilosophy, vol. 35, nº 5, Outubro 2004, pp. 744-765

 

Kennedy D., Vansieleghem N. (2012) Philosophy for Children in Transition – Problems and Prospects – Reino Unido: Wilwy-Blackwell

 

Kohan W. (2004). Lugares da Infância - Rio de Janeiro: CIP Brasil

 

Kohan  W. (2007) Infância, estrangeiridade e ignorância – São Paulo: Autêntica

 

Kohan W. (2008) Filosofia O paradoxo de aprender e ensinar – São Paulo: Autêntica

 

Lipman M. (1998). A Filosofia vai à Escola. – São Paulo: Summus Editorial

 

Lipman M., Oscanyan F. S., Sharp A. M. (2006)  Filosofia na sala de aula – São Paulo: Nova Alexandria

 

LOMBROZO Tania, Sometimes confusion is a good thing, acedido em dezembro 30, 2015, em http://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2015/12/14/459651340/sometimes-confusion-is-a-good-thing

 

MACHADO Celeste Educar (para) o pensar : desenvolvimento de competências reflexíveis em professores e alunos do 1º CEB : contributos da "Filosofia para Crianças,  acedido em janeiro 29, 2016, https://ria.ua.pt/handle/10773/11515

 

McCALL Catherine C. (2009) Transforming Thinking – Londres: Routledge

 

Mendonça D., Lourenço M. J. (2011) Brincar a Pensar: Manual de Filosofia para Crianças – Lisboa: Plátano Editora

 

McCarty M. (2006) Little Big Minds – Nova Iorque: Penguin

 

Murris K. (2016) The Posthuman Child – Londres: Routledge

 

Rastrojo, J. B. (2013). Filosofia para Niños y Capacitacion Democrática Freiriana - Madrid: Liber Factory.

 

Splitter L., Sharp A. M. Uma Nova Educação: A Comunidade de Investigação na Sala de Aula – São Paulo: Nova Alexandria 

 

Stanley S. (2012). Why Think? Philosophical Play from 3-11 – Londres: Bloomsburry

 

UNESCO (2007). La Philosophie Une École de la Liberté. Enseignement de la philosophie et apprentissage du philosopher: État des lieux et regards pour l’avenir. Paris: Éditions UNESCO.

 

Wallenstein M. (2014) Se não havia nada, como é que surgiu alguma coisa? – Lisboa: Fundação Centro Cultural de Belém

 

Worley P. (2011). The If Machine -  Londres: Bloomsbury

 

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livros que recomendo / já utilizei em oficinas de filosofia

 

a contradição humana

em que pensas tu?

porquê? 

colecção dinalivro - oscar brenifier 

porque é que vou à escola? / porque é que gostas de mim? / porque é que não posso fazer o que quero?

o livro negro das cores 

 

 

links 

platão :: TedED

vídeos "a grande descoberta" (oscar brenifier) 

 

 

[post em constante actualização: aceitam-se sugestões de bibliografia na caixa de comentários]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"joana, o que fazes?"

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às vezes convidam-me para partilhar aquilo que faço em filosofia para crianças. e lá vou eu, de mochila às costas, com livros, jogos e também histórias para contar. histórias que recolhi do trabalho em AEC, do trabalho com os amigos do taekwondo, em jardim de infância e por aí fora.

 

10 anos 

são 10 anos de projecto, 10 anos com muitas viagens e kms que me levaram a conhecer crianças, jovens e pessoas crescidas curiosas com "isso" da filosofia. faial, funchal, são miguel, portalegre, lourinhã, famalicão, braga, nazaré, rio de mouro, sintra, palmela, carnide, santo antónio dos cavaleiros, alfragide, odivelas, benfica, lisboa, aveiro, madrid, porto e maputo - estes são alguns dos locais por onde o meu projecto filocriatiVIDAde já passou. 

neste processo houve muitos projectos, ideias que se transformaram em encontros de filosofia, desafios, trabalhos em parceria - e também coisas que ficaram pelo caminho. 

conheci pessoas que trabalham e investigam nesta área, um pouco por todo o mundo. troquei ideias, partilhei dúvidas e (poucas) certezas.

são 10 anos e muitas horas a criar e a recriar desafios que transformem o pensar num jogo, de forma a conquistar as crianças e os jovens para algo que muitos de nós associam ao castigo (agora ficas aí a pensar naquilo que fizeste!). 

 

parar para pensar

pensar é divertido. parar para pensar é um desafio, é ir contra a corrente. ninguém pára para pensar. não há tempo, estamos muito ocupados e há sempre algo mais importante para fazer. fazemos muitas coisas, estamos muito ocupados e não há tempo para nada. então, vamos criar tempo. vamos criar um tempo e um espaço para as crianças e os jovens praticarem o pensar. um ginásio do pensamento. vamos marcar um dia e uma hora para isso acontecer. vamos "só" pensar. fazer perguntas. alimentar a curiosidade.

e, sim, vamos sentir-nos inseguros. vamos fugir a perguntas (e a respostas) pois isso leva-nos a tomar consciência como sabemos tão pouco sobre nada, como andamos perdidos, como não temos tantas respostas para as perguntas que julgamos óbvias e que, por isso, deixamos de perguntar.  mas isto é como ir ao ginásio: nos primeiros dias de treino os músculos vão manifestar dor, desagrado e cabe-nos insistir, persistir - não desistir. 

 

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afinal, somos muitos 

fiz uma pesquisa rápida no youtube com as palavras philosophy, philosophy for children. e encontrei estas talks de outros, loucos como eu, que se afirmam como filósofos e que andam por aí a "espalhar a palavra" e a filosofia para crianças (e jovens, e pessoas crescidas).

partilho convosco:

 

amy leask

leslie cazares

sara goering

pete worley

patrick gentempo

joana rita sousa (sim, eu!!!) 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

filosofia no jardim de infância

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hoje demos continuidade ao trabalho iniciado em dezembro.

sim, aconteceu muita coisa desde a última vez que nos sentámos para filosofar. a verdade é que nos lembramos de muitas coisas que dissemos, das dúvidas, das certezas, dos passos que damos para a frente e para trás.
foi um dia de descobertas: não é que existem sereias verdadeiras? e reis? sabem onde os podem encontrar? no Algarve!

em fevereiro voltamos a sentar-nos à volta da filosofia.

 

Steven Hoggins: "The reason to introduce philosophy into schools is to give children, who would not otherwise have the opportunity to, the chance to practice thinking well, about ideas involving life, knowledge, meaning, existence, ethics and language."

I met Steve @ Sophia Networking Meeting, last July, @ Aveiro. In this meeting we talked a lot about questions, because the theme was "questioning questioning". Steve shared some of his time answering my questions (than you Steve!!).

 

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Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

 I was in the final month of my university teacher training course. I was in a small, rural school in Devon one lunchtime, leafing through a magazine and I came across an article written by Peter Worley of The Philosophy Foundation. He was describing the reasoning, critical thinking and evaluation of ideas that he thought philosophy could add to a child’s education. I had studied dialogic teaching methods and had combined it with some of my own experimental ‘critical thinking’ exercises but Peter’s stuff seemed like it was way ahead. 6 Months later I was in London, attending his training.

 

How did you started working with p4c?

After training, there weren’t any opportunities to teach p4c as a full-time job. I instead took a job as a regular classroom teacher. It was 3 years before enough of an opportunity arose for me to leap into the world of p4c. One spring The Philosophy Foundation offered me a contract for a few hours work. I gave up my teaching job in July and moved over to facilitating philosophy sessions as my main job. They were lean years at the beginning but I slowly got better and was offered more work. Now it is my full-time job and I couldn’t think of any better.

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

Hahaha! What a question to ask a philosopher. In the broadest sense, no, philosophy is not essential to life. However, if we think within the sphere of education, where we deem maths and science as necessary subjects of study, then yes, philosophy is as essential as mathematics. The philosophy we do in classes practices good reasoning, argumentation, critical engagement, creative thinking and effective dialogue. These areas do not stand alone either, they underpin how we think in all other subject areas. Also, as the

 

Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

We should take philosophy to children, that is the real aim, but educational institutions can help that (they are full of children!). The reason to introduce philosophy into schools is to give children, who would not otherwise have the opportunity to, the chance to practice thinking well, about ideas involving life, knowledge, meaning, existence, ethics and language. As state education is mandatory here, targeting schools gives us the best chances of getting to all children.

 

How is P4C developing in your country?

This is the kind of question I am terrible at. I don’t know the general condition of the movement. I am mostly in class teaching philosophy or helping run the charity I work for, The Philosophy Foundation. My colleagues are more involved in the wider picture. I can say that I started this job 5 years ago and at that time we only worked in a few schools. Now we work in over forty schools a week and I have got to know Sapere and Thinking Space, two other p4c charities in the UK

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

This is not something I really considered until a recent SOPHIA meeting in Portugal. The theme was ‘Questioning questioning’ so we thought about questions a great deal. I realised quite quickly that I am not primarily interested in questions. I am, however, interested in the philosophy the children are doing and I will ask whatever question serves to help them think more clearly about the ideas being discussed.

It seems to me that the philosophising doesn’t lie in the question, the philosophising is in how children go about trying to answer questions. So, a question’s ‘philosophicalness’ should be judged by how philosophical it makes the discussion. This is situational too. You can ask ‘in this a chair’ and have lengthy metaphysical discussion with some of my classes but if you ask that question in another context you will get some funny looks and absolutely no philosophy.

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

The biggest challenge is probably something we don’t realise yet. Most challenges or problems that we are aware of and understand, can usually be addressed. It’s the baffling things we didn’t anticipate that posed the greatest challenge (Trumps presidency comes to mind here!).

I have a sneaking suspicion that one of the problems we don’t yet realise or understand is how other people view p4c. I come across many head teachers, professionals and other people who have a different conception of what p4c is and what it is trying to achieve. Some conflate philosophy with psychology, some view p4c as a ‘hippy’ subject, others see any mention of philosophy as elitist or pretentious. There also are many that do understand it, but they are not the people that we should be trying to reach. Challenges to the future of p4c will come from those who misperceive it and I don’t think we know enough about who they are and how they view p4c.

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

If the questions are philosophical then engage with the ideas and be prepared to fumble through a lot of confusion. Most of the time conversation with children is led by adults, which is fine in most cases, we generally know how best to answer everyday questions in a clear direct manner. The adult informs or instructs the child and we move on. We are used to doing this because most questions require that kind of interaction.

Occasionally the question will be something philosophical (‘if I guess the answer, is that lying?’) and then you must shift into an enquiring interaction, where you ask the child what they mean, what they think lying is and what they think is the right thing to do. Their answers will be unclear and probably different from an adult’s but that’s ok, they are working through this complicated issue and should continue to try and makes sense of it for themselves, with your support.

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

As I may have let slip earlier, it’s not their questions that I think are important, it’s children’s responses to them but I did have a session with thirty 8-year-olds on making questions of a different kind. We had looked at a story, based on the Turing test. In brief it suggests that if a human was having a conversation with a computer in ordinary language and the human couldn’t tell if the responses were computer generated or human generated, then the computer could be considered ‘intelligent’ in the same way that humans are. I asked the children what questions they would ask if they were the human performing the test. Several said things along the lines of ‘Ask if it’s a human/when it was born/what it is made of!’. Then, one child said that we should ask “[increasingly] difficult maths sums, then if it got one wrong, they it’s a human”. I was surprised and delighted.

 

 

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Who is Steve? Steve studied at the University of Wales, Lampeter gaining a BA in philosophy in 2003. Shortly after he began teaching English in both Italy and Portugal, returning to the UK to begin a career as a primary school teacher. Since he first started working within the British education system he has seen a philosophy shaped hole in the core of the curriculum and is striving to find ways for it to be filled, Joining the Philosophy Foundation
His work includes project management, development work in schools, and mentoring and doing philosophy with very small children.

Farzaneh Shahrtash: " Any question can become philosophical as long as our mind is not certain about the answer or even the meaning of the words in the question itself."

I met Farzaneh Shahrtash on YouTube, by watching this video. I left a comment on the video and got a response and the contact of Farzaneh. She is working on Iran and I was curious to know a little more about P4C in this country. 

 

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Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

It was exactly 1995 we (my colleagues and I) saw this combination (Philosophy+ Children) in the internet. We started collecting the information by following the linking as far as it was possible, but we couldn’t find any instructional method. We printed every page (almost 2000 pages) and we went through each, one by one. This was our only chance in that time, because we couldn’t order any book from Iran in that time. 

 

How did you started working with p4c?

I asked everyone in the team to look for methodology in the internet. One day, one of my colleagues found an e-learning teacher training course in Australia which was conducted by a group of educators and teachers in Buranda state school. We wrote an email and asked to join the group. They accepted us and send us a story book and a video. This was our first contact. It was our greatest turning point, because we were able to see the methodology (Community of Inquiry) that we have imagined by reading the different internet materials (more than three years) in the video.

After that course we used Thinking stories 1 by Philip Cam (which was already translated and published in Iran) to run 6 classes in a private elementary school (grade 3, 4 and 5- each of two)

Then we announced the result of our practical work in the P4C panel in a world congress of philosophy in Iran in May 2002.

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

Yes. P4C is claimed (if it is done properly) to support a system of beliefs in every mankind which is justified by critical, creative and caring thinking in order to make good judgment in his/her personal life and the society which s/he lives in.

 

Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

It depends on what kind of activities or approaches you have in your school or after that.

In 1969 when P4C was introduced to American society, no communal inquiry nor critical and creative thinking skills was part of their national curriculum. However, these skills are now integrated in national curriculum in both United stated and Canada and many other countries. Maybe that is why P4C was not very popular in United States schools in the past few decades.

Even now the methodology of “community of inquiry” (COI) which was once used and defined in a particular way in P4C is modified and practiced in other subject matters as well.

So I think the only reason that P4C should still go to schools is its ethical inquiry and inquiry about other philosophical concepts, which are rarely found in other subject matters.

In my country P4C should go to our school system because our educational approach is not community of inquiry and not even inquiry itself. Critical and creative thinking skills are not integrated in our national curriculum yet (it is only on paper) so our students can gain a lot by P4C in our schools.

 

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

 Any question can become philosophical as long as our mind is not certain about the answer or even the meaning of the words in the question itself.

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

The teacher training is the biggest challenge. Teacher trainers are very few. However, to become a successful P4C teacher is a very hardworking practice and is different from becoming a mathematic or science teacher. There should be a seed of “philosophy” in both your mind and in your heart in order to become a good P4C teacher.

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

If you can make the child’s question your own question, you can help the child to deal with his/her question, otherwise you are not part of a communal inquiry and you are not helping the child in a P4C way.

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

Last week when I was trying to teach them to make a question with why, a three years old boy asked, why the ladies have to wear scarf and men don’t (in Iran)?

 

How is P4C developing in your country?

P4C was mainly introduced by Iranian reports and publishers, when the educational system and the university faculties had not even heard about it. Eventually the graduate students translate the related papers of this field for writing their thesis in education departments.

It was approximately in 2012 that the “Thinking series” was inserted as separated contexts in the national curriculum for grades 6-9. The suggested methodology in these classes was very close to “community of inquiry”. However, there are still no formal and widely accepted training courses for these classes. Each teacher is using different materials and different instruction in his/ her class.

Now after 20 years, we have some written and translated books, papers, interested graduate students and faculties, and many parents who are looking for P4C classes in city centres and schools all over the country.

 

 

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Please follow Farzaneh's work on facebook

 

 

 

Ilse Daems: "(...) if they can think for themselves, they are able to deal with the ‘certainty of uncertainty."

I met Ilse at Sophia Network Meeting, last july @ Aveiro. Ilse had a hard time answering my questions, but I think we can all understand Ilse's words and thoughts about P4C. 

Who is Ilse? Ilse is 60 years old and lives in Antwerp | Belgium.  Left home when she was 12, did not study, has no diploma. Has worked in an advertising agency, the zoo, the trade union, politics. She is copywriter & gamedevil, a lifetime Legofanatic, extreme allergic to fish, seafood and schoolish methods and an expert in colouring way outside the lines.

 

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Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)?

 It was five years ago. I had worked 20 years behind the scenes in politics [socialist party]. In 2012 my boss, the former mayor of Antwerp, lost the elections. So I lost my job. I was then 55 years old without any diploma and thought: ‘what the hell am I going to do the rest of my life?’ Those days I had to organize in the margins of a colloquium the child care. I did not want that this was a kind of ‘babysitting’. I did not want the kids to be ‘entertained’. I wanted them to work on the same themes as the adults, but from their angle and perspective. I asked a guy from Gent, Alex Klijn, who was recommended to me, to come and to philosophize with the children. I was thunderstruck and over the moon about what he did. He told me there was a training ‘philosophizing with children and youngsters’. I read the description of that course and thought: if I could have invented a training for myself, it would have been something like this…. So my decision was made and I lent the money to do this training because it was insuperable expensive. I asked to be admitted. That was not evident because I did not have the required bachelor diploma. They hesitated but finally agreed. I am still very grateful they gave me that chance. It was a solid and sound training with awesome, competent teachers. I followed this intensive course a year long, did my teaching practice, wrote my final papers and got the certificate. This was the most important junction in my life and has changed it completely.

 

How did you started working with p4c?

After the training I ran a few workshops and then two schools asked me if I would want to philosophize with their children. In the first school the headmistress, Judith, wants to integrate p4c in all classes and in the curriculum of her nursery and primary school. In the second one a lot of parents wanted their children ‘released’ from ‘religion’ and ‘social science’. They now get p4c and yoga instead. Those schools have no budget for p4c. So I don’t get paid. I do it as a volunteer. With pleasure. And satisfaction.

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why?

I think it’s very necessary. Because p4c teachs and trains them to think for themselves. And if they can think for themselves, they are able to deal with the ‘certainty of uncertainty’. To be able to cope with uncertainty, that’s the greatest gift ánd weapon we can offer them.

 

Nowadays children ( @ Portugal) have a lot of activities at school and after school. Why should we take philosophy to schools?

 For two good reasons:

1. At school they learn a lot of ‘knowledge’. Nothing wrong with that. Knowledge can be useful. But they don’t learn the skill of the thinking process itself. They learn thougths, but they do not learn to think. Isn’t that sheer madness? Schools are nuts. They have a screw loose and have lost their marbles. P4c can help them to find those marbles again.

2. P4c is not just another umpteenth ‘activity’. It’s a free space. And that’s why children do like it so much. Their heads and agenda’s are already full. They desperately need free space.

 

 

How is P4C developing in your country?

 Slow.

Much too slow.

A lot of practioners want to change first the whole education department before they are willing to make a single p4c move.

They just sit, wait and ‘lobby.’ They lobby year in year out. That’s not my cup of tea. Think we should do the opposite and make p4c big by ‘just doing it.’ Then the education department will have to follow.

And if they are not smart enough to see and to realize that, we will have to be and stay the rebels. Rebels wíth a cause….

 

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view?

A philosophical question from a p4c point of view is: short, crystal-clear and ‘triggers’.

The answer may not be obvious but has to be inquired.

And the question may not be too big, general or vague.

‘Can music become wet ?’ might be a better question for a philisophical inquiry with children than the ultimate and deadly heavy ‘what is the meaning of life?’

 

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays?

To beat and defeat the highly fashionable ‘p4c light’.

Some people want to do p4c because ‘kids are sooooo cute, soooooo spontaneous and sooooo creative’.

They think that it’s enough to put kids in a circle and to have a vague talk about love, friendschip, the meaning of life, bullying….that kind of stuff.

They do not know the difference between a group discussion and p4c. 

They are glad with every ‘opinion’ and haven not or seldom heard the word ‘argument’ yet.

And they feel giddy and faint when a child says something ‘cute’.

For them those cuteness is the ultimate ‘mission accomplished’ signal. Brrrrrrrrrrrrrr.

To take p4c serious is to take children serious and to let them think for themselves.

They are able to do it.

 

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kid of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

 

A very simple one: talk with children and just don’t give answers all the time.

A lot of parents and teachers only talk with their children if those kids have done something naugthy.

And if children ask questions they are convinced that they have to give the answers.

If a child shows you his latest drawing and asks ‘Do you like it? Do you think its beautiful?’ ask him what he thinks.

And start a conversation about what he has drawn.

‘What is it?’

‘A boat.’

Does it look like a boat?

Why?

Why not?....

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us?

 

They surprise me all the time. That is their core business  But the one that surprised me the most was Aki’s question. It happened at the annual school party. Out of the blue Aki dropped in on me and said:

‘I have played enough, Ilse, for now I desperately need to philosophize a while and my question is: what is the oposite of time?‘

So we talked about the fact that we talk about time ‘all the time’ although we don’t know very well what time is.We have difficulties to define it.According to Aki we cannot say that we have time.In his eyes we are time.‘Time is all there is’ he said. And then his eyes started to shine: ‘If time is everything, than I know the opposite: nothing! And after a while: ‘But is nothing not also something?’ That’s for the next time, he said. And ran away to play.

 

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