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filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

filocriatiVIDAde | filosofia e criatividade

oficinas de perguntas, para crianças / para pais e filhos | formação para professores e educadores (CCPFC) | #filocri | #filopenpal

Walter Kohan: "que nunca subestimemos ou pensemos que compreendemos absolutamente uma pergunta de uma criança"

Conheci o trabalho do Walter Kohan através da Rita Pedro - que conheci no II Encontro Sentir Pensamentos | Pensar Sentidos, que eu e a Celeste Machado organizámos em 2013. Tive a oportunidade de estar com o Walter num encontro promovido pela Universidade Católica Portuguesa (Lisboa). Não houve muito tempo para conversarmos mas, mais uma vez, a tecnologia superou a distância e bastou uma mensagem no facebook para o Walter se disponibilizar a participar neste desafio de perguntas & respostas à volta da filosofia para crianças. Tal como o Tomás Magalhães Carneiro, o Walter utiliza a expressão filosofia com crianças. E explica-nos sumariamente o porquê. 

 

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Walter Kohan conheceu a filosofia para crianças em 1992,  na Universidade de Buenos Aires, onde trabalhava, em 1992. Foi um cartaz que convocava uma reunião aos interessados em “filosofia para crianças”que chamou a sua atenção. "Depois dessa reunião fizemos um curso de formação em Buenos Aires e logo organizamos um grupo… já em 1993 Lipman e Sharp visitaram Buenos Aires, estavamos traduzindo o programa, encontrando-nos para fazer experiências, iniciamos um projeto de pesquisa… eramos um grupo entusiasta!", confessa Walter.

Sobre a necessidade da filosofia para crianças nas escolas, Walter alerta para a força da palavra "necessidade", dizendo que “Necessário é uma palavra um pouco forte… se a filosofia funciona bem, acho que pode ser um espaço muito importante na educação das crianças… mas necessário talvez seja exagerado… eu preferiria que esteja a que não esteja, claro…"

 

Por que havemos de levar a filosofia para as escolas? "Por que ela quando praticada com sentido é um espaço que ajuda na experiência de um tempo propriamente infantil, não sujeito tanto ao relógio mas a uma experiência de pensamento que pode ajudar a ter uma relação mais interessante com o que se faz na escola, com os outros colegas e consigo mesmo…"

 

Walter, o que faz com que uma pergunta seja uma questão filosófica – do ponto de vista da fpc? "Eu não sei se há um “ponto de vista de fpc”… até preferia que não houvesse… a filosofia é algo plural e há sempre pontos de vista nela… a partir do meu, penso que a filosofia não está nas perguntas mas na relação que estabelecemos com elas… uma pergunta aparentemente muito filosófica como “o que é o tempo?” pode ser tratada de maneira pouco filosófica e outras aparentemente menos filosóficas podem desencadear um torrente de pensamentos… de modo que a filosofia é algo vivo que se desperta numa relação com as perguntas, com as palavras…" 

 

Filosofia para ou com crianças?

 

"Eu prefiro pensar em filosofar com crianças do que em filosofia para crianças… há muito escrito sobre isto, mas para dize-lo rapidamente: prefiro o verbo e o infinitivo ao substantivo e uma preposição que indica horizontalidade e interioridade ao contrário… um dos principais desafios do filosofar é de fato ser um espaço problematizador dos modos de vidas contemporaneous e abrir possibilidades para novos modos de vida, alternativos… oferecer um tempo para poder problematizar o que estamos sendo…"

Podes dar alguns conselhos aos professores e aos pais para os ajudar a lidar com as perguntas das crianças? "Não sei se são conselhos mas eu diria que a coisa mais interessante que se pode fazer com uma pergunta de uma criança poucas vezes é responde-la… e que nunca subestimemos ou pensemos que compreendemos absolutamente uma pergunta de uma criança… e que nos demos sempre tempo de pensar essa pergunta, a nós e a elas… e que vejamos nelas oportunidades de nos pensar a nos mesmos… e a nossa relação com a infância…"

 Walter confessa que já se surpreendeu muitas vezes com as perguntas dos mais novos: "Tenho escrito sobre várias delas… quando não esperas alguma perguntas em particular toda pergunta te surpreende… acho isso bonito: ser surpreendido… gosto disso e trabalho para isso: a surpresa, como a filosofia, não está nas perguntas mas no que fazemos com elas… então depende muito de nós esperar as perguntas e nos surpreender com elas… acho bonito deixar-se surpreender, eis algo mais que eu diria para “lidar” com as perguntas das crianças…"

 

 

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notas:

as expressões a bold são da minha responsabilidade  

fpc = filosofia para crianças

fcc = filosofia com crianças 

Leslie Cázares Aponte: "Pienso que el vivir con FpN como un proyecto vital, nos va permitiendo estar más conscientes del mundo y de nosotros mismos,"

Conheci a Leslie Cázares Aponte através do instagram. Cedo percebi a sua ligação à filosofia para crianças (filosofia para niños) e fomos mantendo o contacto. A Leslie é a actual Presidente de la Federación Mexicana de Filosofía para Niños A.C., cujo trabalho podem espreitar AQUI. Aqui ficam os ecos mexicanos da filosofia para crianças. Gracias, Leslie! 

 

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¿Te acuerdas cuando fue la primera vez que oiste hablar de filosofía para niños? "Fue exactamente hace 20 años, me fui a vivir a la ciudad de León Guanajuato y mi esposo me preguntó : ¿te gustaría tomar un curso de filosofía para niños que imparte mi tía Teresa de la Garza?. Ahora esa pregunta es extraña, ya que ella además de ser un familiar, se volvió en una de mis maestras más importantes en mi vida. Además de iniciarme en el camino del Diplomado de FpN, Tere asesoró mi tesis de maestría, llamada “el impacto del programa de filosofía para niños en los docentes que la imparten”.

 

¿Como has empezado a trabajar en área? "Hace también 20 años, inicié a trabajar en la Universidad, con la propuesta de dar clases de filosofía para niños a los docentes universitarios de nuevo ingreso. Mi hipótesis era que FpN, ayuda a la docencia en todos sentidos, a generar un ambiente de pensar, a tener reglas de participación, a plantear preguntas de investigación, a dialogar y buscar alternativas para solucionar problemas, y todo eso es muy útil para cualquier clase de nivel Universitario. Claro que años más tarde descubrí que esta hipótesis aplicaba para cualquier nivel educativo."

 

¿Consideras que la fpn és necessaria para los niños? Porquê? "Si, porque para vivir hay que resolver un montón de ideas que se nos presentan en la vida, así como infinidad de toma de decisiones. FpN, nos va preparando para esto y más, a través de la comunidad de investigación, va siendo un ejercicio permanente en la vida, buscar alternativas, plantear preguntas para indagar, elaborar cuestionamientos, detectar inconsistencias lógicas en el mundo loco en el que vivimos. Pienso que el vivir con FpN como un proyecto vital, nos va permitiendo estar más conscientes del mundo y de nosotros mismos."

 

¿Hoy en dia los niños tienen muchissimas actividades en la escuela e fuera de ella. Porquê debemos tener la filosofia en las escuelas? "La escuela es el espacio de socialización, en donde podemos ejercitar la realidad del mundo a través de nuestros profesores, compañeros de estudio y del material informativo que nos rodea. La comunidad de diálogo en las escuelas, se va transformando en un delicioso lugar seguro para crecer y poner nuestras ideas en consideración de nosotros mismos en relación a los demás. Es decir, que las ideas propias, van teniendo un espacio de intercambio social, que a la larga, nos permitirá tener un intercambio social en nuestras vidas, mucho más pensado y pensado en conjunto. Creo que esto solo se puede dar en la escuela. Lo mejor es tener una o dos clases a la semana para filosofar en conjunto, desde la edad más temprana en donde inicia el lenguaje, hasta la edad universitaria.

 

¿Que és lo que hace que una pregunta sea una pregunta filosófica - desde el punto de vIsta de la fpn? "Esto le encanta contestar a dos de mis maestros favoritos del FpN, Eugenio Echeverría de México y Juan Carlos Lago de España, Eugenio dice: Es controversial. No tiene una respuesta cerrada y es importante para nosotros y no hay edad en la q deje de ser importante. Ejemplo. La justicia. La libertad. El sentido de la vida. Juan Carlos Lago dice: Que sea abierta y controvertida, que no tenga una respuesta definitiva, sino que sea válida cuando se emite, pero que puede modificarse ante nuevas evidencias o circunstancias. Otra característica es que la respuesta no está dada ya en un texto, sino que la vamos construyendo desde nuestra experiencia personal o compartida.

Yo Leslie digo, que las preguntas filosóficas son aquellas que nos parecen exquisitas y complejas, difíciles de contestar de manera pronta y precisa, necesitan la exploración de ideas, la búsqueda de fuentes de información, nos mueven a la reflexión inmediatamente. Las preguntas filosóficas hablan sobre temas relacionados con la humanidad, el futuro de las especies, incluyen dilemas éticos, morales y sociales."

 

¿Cuáles son los mayores desafios que se enfrenta hoy en dia fpc? "El crecimiento del proyecto en todos los países, la comunicación de ideas y resultados que ha tenido el programa en las personas, profesores, alumnos, necesitamos saber qué ha pasado en todos los países para reconocer la importancia que ha tenido en las vidas, para que siga creciendo. Es por esto que estoy haciendo una red de comunicación en varios países, desde la Federación Mexicana de Filosofía para Niños, que actualmente encabezo."

 

¿Puede dar algunos consejos a maestros y padres para ayudarles a lidar com las preguntas de los niños?

"Claro:

Asombrarse y explorar las las preguntas, tratarlas de entender junto con ellos ¿qué pregunta la pregunta? ¿por qué te surgió? ¿a quién más le interesaría explorar esa pregunta? ¿qué tipo de pregunta es? ¿se responde con un sí o con un no? ¿podemos pensar en otras preguntas similares?

Evitar asustarse con las preguntas o por el tema o por como están planteadas, una buena actitud educativa es ayudarlos a comprender el orígen de sus dudas y plantearlas de manera en que sean comprendidas por los demás.

Cuando son demasiadas preguntas, puede ser que solo pregunten por preguntar sin un sentido claro, es decir, quizá nos quieran molestar con sus preguntas. En esos casos sugiero preguntarles ¿tu tienes ya una respuesta a la pregunta? ¿por qué quisieras saber la respuesta a esa pregunta? ¿crees que alguien comparte tus dudas?

 

¿Alguna vez has sido sorprendido con una pregunta de un niño? Puedes compartir con nosotros la pergunta?

 "Me han fascinado estas:

 ¿Sabes o crees?

¿Será que la vida es algo que conocemos o que queremos conocer?

 ¿Quién soy? ¿somos parte de todo? ¿todo es parte de nosotros?

 ¿Qué cosas nos hacen felices? ¿Es posible ser felices en la vida sin cosas?

 ¿Por qué las personas no aprendemos de nuestros errores?

 ¿Quién inventó los árboles? ¿para qué se inventaron a los niños? ¿será que el mundo es tan grande como dicen?"

 

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⚠️ o texto a bold é da minha responsabilidade 

brincadeira de criança = investigação científica?

 

"Today, science is torn between accessibility and authority. Crises of replication and claims of data-dredging appear alongside such phrases as ‘studies say’ and ‘what science tells us’. But the secret, well-known to most scientists, is that ‘science’ doesn’t ‘tell us’ anything. Science is a medium – a really effective one – not a message. Dewey saw it this way: science is less what a set of people called scientists say than it is a way of saying things. Science is a style of reasoning. This is what made children ‘little scientists’, at least originally.

The story of how science got identified with one particular method remains to be told. The question, then and now, is how far that method extends and who is capable of using it. Casting children as scientists is not about taking science down a peg. Rather, linking the scientific method and child’s play might help us imagine new ways of putting science to work in the world around us."

 

o artigo completo pode ser lido AQUI

autor: Henry Cowles

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Laurance Splitter: "(...) we need to take their questions seriously, and check with them before assuming we know exactly what they mean."

Laurance Splitter is a reference to me and to all of you who study P4C (philosophy for children). Laurance has been working in this area since 1983/1984 and I'm really used to quote him on my academic work. 

I feel like a real rookie, next to professor Laurance. Laura D'Olimpio encouraged me to write to him, so that my blog could share with you another point of view from someone who practices #p4c, for such a long time. 

Thank you, professor Laurance!

 

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Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)? "I think it was early in 1982. I met Matthew Lipman later that year when I was taking Sabbatical leave in the USA."

 

And how did you start working with p4c? "In early 1983, I contacted the state government at the time, and showed them some of the original p4c materials written by Lipman and Sharp. Their unenthusiastic response taught me that this is the wrong place to start! So I began contacting schools and teachers and arranged to sit down with primary school children in 1984 so I could claim at least some experience of doing philosophy with children, not just talking about it. With several other volunteers, we formed the first national p4c association, based in Sydney, Australia, in 1985, at the first “teacher educator” workshop which I organized. Matthew Lipman and Ann Sharp directed this workshop, and participants included philosophers, principals and teachers from around Australia. These people were instrumental in setting up local associations and networks in their own regions over the next few years, leading to the establishment of a national federation in 1990. One thing I realized early on is that despite my own passion and commitment – indeed, because of them – it was important to set up state and regional organizations which were reasonably democratic and would outlast the particular individuals who served on them. P4c should never be any one person’s “pet” project."

 

In your opinion, what is the most important skill that a P4C teacher must have? "Along with such attitudes as a love of philosophy, a good degree of intellectual humility, and a commitment to teaching young people to think well, I think there are several key skills which are equally important, including: listening carefully, asking appropriate questions at the appropriate time, and developing an “ear” for what constitutes a philosophical direction or focus. Although it is not the teacher’s primary task to provide answers to philosophical questions (even if she thinks she knows them!), this philosophical “ear” usually requires a degree of familiarity with philosophy, so that one has a sense of the great dialogical tradition that children are invited to join. In practice, this is not always possible for classroom teachers, so it helps to have experienced philosophers on hand as well. Conversely, professional philosophers may not be particularly good teachers so, ideally, it is great when teachers and philosophers can work together."

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why? "Interpreting “p4c” broadly to mean “doing philosophy with children and adolescents”, I certainly think it is important. Since many children survive in the world without much – if any – contact with philosophy (especially if their own philosophical musings are ignored), it is too strong to say that p4c is strictly necessary. It is even possible for young people to grow into thoughtful, reasonable and respectful adults without the benefits of philosophy, but this is much more likely if they have had the benefit of being members of a community of philosophical inquiry. I say this because, in my view, such a community empowers children to think conceptually and, thereby, to appreciate the ethical, logical, metaphysical, epistemological and aesthetic dimensions of their experiences."

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view? "We seem always to come back to this “meta” question, partly because it is important, and partly because we keep rethinking the answer! As tempting as it is to refer to such features as openness, having no (universally accepted) answers, etc., I no long favour this approach, just because they are features of any kind of genuine inquiry, whether philosophical or not (scientific or historical, for example). More precisely – since others will point out that scientific questions do or will have accepted or settled answers, at least in the scientific community – I think that a good teacher of inquiry-based learning and thinking knows how to create the sense of openness – even tension – among students that comes from feeling unsettled or puzzled by the questions they explore. Coming back to the question, I tend to fall back on the idea that philosophical questions are those that deal essentially with concepts and their meanings."

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays? "I am not sure if there is one universal challenge, as a lot depends on time and circumstance. Still, I am tempted to point to the relatively recent and alarming rise in “populist” thinking that is evidenced by recent political events. Populist thinking tends to downplay such norms as reasonableness, truth and judgment in favour of looking to those who promise quick and easy solutions to problems. As the term suggests, it makes the terrible mistake of assuming that the most popular answer is the best answer, no matter if it is shown to be false or contradictory. In such an environment, many people will simply have no time or patience for the kinds of careful and deep deliberation that philosophy requires, or for the crucial idea that there is nothing noble about absolute certainty. Of course children will still be curious and ask lots of questions, but the adults who govern their lives have the power to deny them the opportunity to do philosophy, by discouraging their questions, demanding unquestioned obedience, and pushing a “dumbed-down” curriculum in schools and classrooms. There is a positive dimension to this issue. IF more children engage in philosophical dialogue and inquiry, the chances are good that they will develop both the skills required to think well, and the dispositions that accompany them, including a concern for the truth (and for telling the truth). Such children are unlikely to become “populists”!"

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kind of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions?

"Some questions require, or deserve, straight-forward responses (“Is Grandma coming today?”, “Is it ok to cross the road now?”, for example). But both in philosophy class and in ordinary life, those with a philosophical “ear” (as noted above) can often discern that children’s questions provide great opportunities for thoughtful discussion. In these cases, it is neither necessary nor desirable to simply “answer” their questions. As other writers have pointed out, children’s questions are often “invitations” to “play with” ideas and thoughts. Since most such questions already reflect a good deal of thinking on the child’s part, one good strategy is ask them, in turn, “What makes you ask that?” or “What are you thinking about here?”

More generally, we need to take their questions seriously, and check with them before assuming we know exactly what they mean. As for sharing our own views on substantive issues with children, I think it depends on the extent to which they have mastered or internalized the tools of deliberative inquiry. For example, if they are satisfied with what we say simply because we are the “clever” adults in charge (as teachers or parents), then they are not yet thinking for themselves."

 

This is one of my favourite questions, because I think we all have curious stories related to the children's questions. Laurance, did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us? "This is an empirical question that relies on my having a decent memory – something about which I am no longer so sure! But I will always remember one particular question that came up during a fourth grade class demonstration which was actually being videoed for television. It was one of my very first experiences doing philosophy with 9 year olds and I was quite nervous, particularly because the cameras were rolling throughout the lesson. We read a chapter from Matthew Lipman’s novel Pixie which raises all kinds of metaphysical issues to do with relationships, mind, space and time, etc. At the end of the reading I asked the kids if there was something they found especially interesting or puzzling – and was met with complete silence!

I have learned since then that silence can, indeed, be “golden” but back then every second seemed like an hour, and still the students seemed to have nothing to say. Finally, much to my relief, one child put his hand up. His question: “What’s that funny mark at the bottom of the page?” (pointing to a smudge made by the photocopy machine). What to do with such a blatantly non-philosophical question? Simply answer it? Ask if anyone else can answer it? Ask the questioner what made him ask that question? Fortunately, I opted to take his question seriously and wrote it up on the board with his name next to it. I explained that all questions are welcome and that this was his question which he was kindly giving to the class community. At that point several others raised their hands to ask questions which lead to some great dialogue; but they had been encouraged by that student’s willingness to break the silence and ask the first question.

 

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📷 Laurance Splitter, on facebook

⚠️ bolds are my responsability

 

Jane Yates: "I believe that the ability to wonder is our most important human capacity."

I met Jane on twitter, Jane and her "Philosopher's Backpack". In her website we can read that Jane " has over 20 years of practical experience of P4C with primary school children.  She is a registered SAPERE trainer and has led P4C training for over 1200 primary and secondary teachers from over 200 schools across the UK and also in Spain, Mexico City, Nepal, India, British Virgin Islands and Malawi.  These include: whole school training, comissioned courses and open courses for state, private and international schools." I asked Jane to share her point of view about P4C and she answered so quickly! Thank you so much, Jane. 

 

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Can you recall the first time you heard about philosophy for children (p4c)? "I heard about P4C in 1993 from a primary geography lecturer called Chris Rowley (one of the founders of P4C in the UK) at the teacher training college, Charlotte Mason College. He did a workshop at a conference that I helped to organise in response to the infamous Rio Earth Summit in 1992 through my work with Cumbria Development Education Centre, which is based at the college."

 

And how did you started working with p4c? "Every few weeks, some of the lecturers at Charlotte Mason College, where I was working(and had trained), would hold a community of enquiry with each other using the Lipman stories as the stimulus. They kindly invited me to take part. As someone in my early 20s, I remember feeling quite daunted practising ‘philosophy’ with all these learned academics as I had come from an educational background where philosophy was certainly never an option. I was like one of those quieter children you sometimes find in P4C sessions in the classroom. I worried I would be laughed at. I worried that I didn’t have the sophisticated vocabulary to articulate my thoughts. Over time, I grew more confident to speak in this group and realised the impact it could therefore have on pupils. It was during these sessions that I learnt the nuts and bolts of reasoning and realised what a rigorous process P4C should be. I was then hugely fortunate to work with some of the lecturers at the college to try out P4C in some local schools and from there many projects developed. I was part of the catalyst for connecting P4C and Global Citizenship way back in 2010. Whatever job I’ve had, I’ve always tried to build in P4C somewhere. For the last five years, I’ve gone back to teaching and have been working with my school to achieve the P4C Gold Award (a new accreditation we have here in the UK). It was an absolute joy to achieve this in 2015. Crickey! That’s over 25 years of P4C!" Jane, that's kind of a lifetime. Congratulations! 

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why? "I think p4c is totally necessary. Young children begin their lives naturally wondering about the world. As babies, they use their hands to manipulate objects to explore and wonder about their immediate world. There’s a lot of research about the link between the brain and the hand and how important brain connections are made when toddlers are stimulated to think through object play. As children begin to develop language, there’s a shift of thinking towards speech. This wondering about the ‘world’ can extend not just to their own world, but to that beyond their own immediate experience. I believe that the ability to wonder is our most important human capacity. Just as we would not hesitate to provide a stimulating environment for babies, we must also provide stimulus for thinking as babies become children and navigate their way to becoming adults. Through thinking, children learn about the world, but they also learn about each other. It helps them develop relationships, judgements and decisions."

 

In Portugal have a lot of activities at school and after school. There's a lot of discussion going on around this.  Why should we take philosophy to schools? "Once children know what is expected from a p4c session, it can transfer to any aspect of school through curriculum lessons and life in school. Some of the best p4c that I see happens naturally in a corridor between individuals. Philosophy, ultimately, should help us to live a better life."

 

What makes a question a philosophical question – from a p4c point of view? "There’s lots of debate over this. Most of my P4C follows the Lipman tradition by the hugely powerful experience of children developing their own questions. In this case, I would say a philosophical question generated by children needs to include, explicitly or implicitly, a clear concept or two. The way the question is framed needs to have potential to engage everyone in the community. My favourite way of describing a philosophical question is to say that it is one that we are ‘not going to settle easily’ and ‘there might be different opinions and ideas within and outside our community’ and ‘we might need to apply logic and reasoning to test out different examples within our question’."

Sometimes we hear that a philosophical question has no right or wrong. What do you think about this, Jane? "It used to frustrate me that children often get into a habit of saying philosophical questions have ‘no right or wrong answers’. Arguably, the concepts of right and wrong are so huge in themselves that this notion can often reduce the complexity of a philosophical question to something rather more simplistic. And with this, there comes a tendency for relativism. However, I would suggest that sometimes children perceive ‘something’ from their unique individual experience of being part of a philosophical enquiry and jump to the conclusion there is ‘no right or wrong answers’ rather than it being something the facilitator has stated or encouraged. The binary concept of ‘no right or wrong’ is a hugely powerful one for children, especially when their experience of childhood might have very clear boundaries of what is right and wrong! For me, when this situation arises, it makes for a timely opportunity to explore the concept of right and wrong as binaries and as concepts on their own. Having said all this, some of the best enquiries have come when the questions have not been obviously philosophical. Increasingly, I am seeing the importance of involving the children in enquiry around the philosophical value of the questions themselves. I also think there is necessary value in the facilitator bringing questions that are not generated by the children through discussion plans and activities to deepen and further philosophical enquiry."

 

What’s the biggest challenge p4c faces, nowadays? "It’s always challenging giving the time to start something new. People want quick results and P4C is not something that can change things over night. I don’t think you can do p4c half-heartedly with children, as they will know you are doing this and the rich benefits will not be as apparent."

 

What can you say to teachers and parents about P4C, some kind of advice?

"As a teacher, I would use Socratic questions within the context of the enquiry to respond and help them deepen their thinking. I’m more of a facilitator of their thinking without swaying them with my own opinions. As a parent, I would always try and find out their thinking behind the question: What made you ask that question? It’s so easy to make assumptions about the meaning behind our children’s questions. Then I’d ask: What do you think?   I’m more of a co-enquirer with my own children. For example, sometimes I might agree or disagree with what they are saying, through reasoning. Above all, I never tell them they are wrong. My 10 year old son made up a great quote recently: ‘If you say someone’s wrong then you are closing the question, but if you disagree with someone then you are opening it up for more answers.

 

Can you share a question that really surprised you? "I’m never generally surprised by any question but I’ve had many that have really made me think. Once, we had an enquiry around: “If children were in charge of school, then how would school be different?” What interested me most, was their ideas were hugely possible and powerful but called for a very different structure than our current tradition of schooling. We must never underestimate the power of children’s ideas and only see them within the narrow lenses of our own experience."

 

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Tomas Miranda Alonso: "Las preguntas de los niños nos cuestionan a nosotros mismos, nos tienen que ayudar a pensar."

Tomas Miranda Alonso vive aqui mesmo ao lado, em Espanha. Conheci-o numa das aulas da Pós-Graduação que fiz na Universidade dos Açores (UAc). Em Outubro de 2016 tive o prazer de o conhecer num encontro organizado pelo NICA (UAc). Desafiei o professor Tomas no facebook, para responder a estas perguntas. O sim foi imediato. 

É um privilégio estudar numa altura em que as pessoas que citamos em artigos estão à distância de um e-mail, de um tweet ou de uma mensagem privada numa qualquer rede social. 

 

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¿Te acuerdas cuando fue la primera vez que oiste hablar de filosofia para niños? " Sí, perfectamente. Fue en un artículo de Félix García Moriyón publicado en Revista de Filosofía y Didáctica de la Filosofía en 1987 con el título: «La filosofía para niños, una propuesta sólida y coherente». En este artículo descubrí que existía un proyecto educativo que surgía de preguntas semejantes a las que yo me hacía en mi práctica docente y que ofrecía una metodología, unos materiales y unos procedimientos adecuados para convertir el aula en una comunidad de indagación filosófica."

 

¿Como has empezado a trabajar en area? En el verano de 1988 asistí al primer Seminario de Formación de Formadores de FpN que se celebró en España, el cual lo dirigió Anne Sharp, ayudada por Félix. Aquel grupo inicial de profesores que acudimos al curso, casi todos de la especialidad de Filosofía, asumimos la tarea de aplicar FpN en nuestras clases y de formar a otros profesores. En mi caso, empecé aquel curso 1988-89 a aplicar FpN en mis clases de Ética en el instituto de bachillerato en el que estaba destinado y a realizar cursos de formación para el profesorado. Desde entonces he aplicado la metodología de la comunidad de investigación en mis clases, tanto en el instituto como en la universidad, sigo trabajando en la formación de profesores, he participado en trabajos de investigación y de creación de materiales curriculares, etc."

 

¿Consideras que la fpc és necessaria para los niños? E porquê? " Yo no diría que se trate de una condición necesaria, pues hay niños que no han acudido a sesiones de FpN y no por ello podemos decir que no se han desarrollado adecuadamente. Sí pienso que el desarrollo de la capacidad de pensar exige cuidar y potenciar la capacidad y la necesidad que tienen todos los niños de hacerse preguntas filosóficas y de pensar filosóficamente. Sí es necesario crear las condiciones educativas adecuadas para que el niño pueda pensar crítica y creativamente."

 

Hoy en dia los niños em Portugal tienen muchissimas actividades en la escuela e fuera de ella.  ¿Porquê debemos tener la filosofia en las escuelas?

"Porque los niños se hacen preguntas filosóficas, porque precisamente es en la niñez cuando surgen las preguntas filosóficas más profundas, porque los niños disponen de la capacidad de asombro ante lo que les rodea y necesitan buscar sentido a lo que hacen. Porque los niños no solo piensan, sino que también piensan sobre el pensar. Porque los niños disfrutan dialogando y pensando sobre cuestiones filosóficas. Porque necesitan y les encanta ejercitarse en el juego del pensar. Pero ¡ojo!, la mera presencia de la filosofía en el currículo educativo no asegura que los estudiantes vayan a ser más críticos. No se trata de que los niños memoricen las respuestas que los filósofos han dado a las preguntas que ellos se plantean, o las que da su profesor o un libro de texto, sino de que dialoguen entre ellos buscando las mejores razones para apoyar sus puntos de vista, siempre dispuestos a modificarlos teniendo en cuenta los puntos de vista de los demás."

 

¿Que és lo que hace que una pregunta sea una pregunta filosófica - desde el punto de vIsta de la fpc? Más que definir en qué consiste una pregunta filosófica, voy a dar algunas características que comparten éstas, las cuales, como los miembros de una misma familia, tienen en común algunos rasgos, pero no todos. Por ello, podemos decir que las preguntas filosóficas comparten un aire de familia. Algunos de esos rasgos son: son preguntas importantes para todos los seres humanos, tienen que ver con el sentido de la experiencia humana, sus respuestas no se pueden encontrar en las ciencias ni en una enciclopedia, nadie las puede responder por ti, son preguntas abiertas, es decir, pueden tener más de una respuesta, tienen un carácter abstracto. Podríamos decir que las preguntas filosóficas se relacionan con las grandes ideas que nos mueven a los humanos: el ser, la verdad, la bondad y la belleza."

 

¿Cuáles son los mayores desafios que se enfrenta hoy en dia fpc? En primer lugar, pienso que hay que cuidar mucho la formación del profesorado que trabaja en FpN. Los profesores han de tener interiorizado un modelo de educación cuyo objetivo no consiste tanto en adaptar a los estudiantes a la sociedad en que viven, ni en trasmitirles una conjunto de conocimientos, sino en ayudarles a que desarrollen las habilidades que les permitan pensar por sí mismos y decidir que personas quieren ser y en qué mundo quieren vivir, para ir construyéndose y construyéndolo en procesos cooperativos. Los facilitadores de los diálogos filosóficos han de ser capaces de mantener y de animar el diálogo filosófico y, para ello, han de tener como supuestos necesarios las virtudes que hacen posible el diálogo: capacidad de escucha, conciencia de su falibilidad, respeto al otro como persona, humildad intelectual, etc. En segundo lugar, FpN se está aplicando actualmente en diversas circunstancias y espacios, y se está adaptando a diferentes contextos y situaciones. FpN ha salido fuera del aula y ha recibido influencia de otras corrientes filosóficas y pedagógicas que pueden ser enriquecedoras. Es importante, pienso, que este crecimiento sea coherente con los planteamientos teóricos y metodológicos que caracterizarían de un modo abierto y procesual las señas de identidad de FpN."

¿Puede dar algunos consejos a maestros y padres para ayudarles a lidar com las perguntas de los niños? Los maestros y los padres han de tener en cuenta que los niños no son objetos de una educación que tienen ellos que dar. Los niños deben ser sujetos activos de su propio aprendizaje. La misión de los educadores consiste en ayudarles en esos procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Son los niños los que se hacen las grandes preguntas filosóficas, pero los mayores no debemos caer en la tentación de darles las respuestas, nuestra función es ayudarles, por medio del diálogo, a que sean ellos los que vayan respondiéndose a sí mismos. Las preguntas de los niños nos cuestionan a nosotros mismos, nos tienen que ayudar a pensar. Los que convivimos con niños tenemos la gran suerte de poder aprender a pensar con ellos. Niños y adultos nos educamos mutuamente."

 

¿Alguna vez has sido sorprendido con una pergunta de un niño? Puedes compartir con nosotros la pregunta? " Son muchas las veces que me he sorprendido por preguntas de niños. Recuerdo una ocasión en la que un sobrino mío, de nueve años, me llamó por teléfono a las once de la noche diciéndome que tenía que hacerme una pregunta. Yo pensé que se trataría de una cuestión de alguna materia escolar, que tendría una respuesta cerrada. Sin embargo, la pregunta fue: “tío, ¿qué es la eternidad y qué es el infinito?” Evidentemente yo no podía dar una respuesta a esa pregunta que no fuera la mera definición del diccionario, pero no era esto lo que mi sobrino demandaba. Decir que “infinito” es lo que no tiene fin no es la respuesta a la pregunta, aunque a lo mejor conseguía con ella callar al niño en aquel momento. Aquella era una buena ocasión para establecer un diálogo con él para intentar entre los dos aclarar el significado y la referencia de esas palabras, aunque, quizás, no era la hora apropiada.

Recuerdo también otra anécdota graciosa y muy interesante. Estaba pidiendo a una niña de ocho años razones de algo que había dicho, y su respuesta era “porque sí”. Después de repetirme cuatro veces que “porque sí”, se para, se queda un poco pensando y me dice: «ya sé que “porque sí” no es una buena razón, pero lo dice mi madre». Interesante, ¿no?

A los niños y adolescentes que me rodean y me han rodeado tanto en mi familia como en el ejercicio de mi profesión les agradezco todo lo que me han aportado en la construcción de la persona que soy."

 

 

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nota:

FpN = filosofia para niños 

Jorge Sánchez-Manjavacas Mellado: "el trabajo que se desarrolla en las sesiones de FpN es una propedéutica para otras materias que presentan sus primeros retos como la literatura o las matemáticas."

Conheci o Jorge Sánchez-Manjavacas Mellado através das redes sociais. Temos um amigo em comum, o Jose Barrientos Rastrojo (o orientador da tese do meu primeiro mestrado). Além disso, temos algo mais que nos une: a filosofia para crianças / filosofia para niños. Acompanho o trabalho do Jorge à distância e não podia deixar de lhe enviar estas perguntas, pensadas em português e traduzidas com a ajuda de uma pessoa amiga, no twitter.
As perguntas e respostas foram trocadas via e-mail e são partilhadas com todos vós, na língua dos "nuestros hermanos". O Jorge faz parte da minha lista de pessoas com quem gostaria de trabalhar um dia. 
 
 
 
 
¿Te acuerdas cuando fue la primera vez que oiste hablar de filosofia para niños? "Pues mi acercamiento al mundo de la Filosofía Aplicada fue por parte de mi profesor de Filosofía en Secundaria. Mi relación con él ha estado muy presente desde que dejé el instituto y él me hablaba, entorno al 2003 sobre diferentes herramientas en las cuales la Filosofía tiene aún mucho que decir. 

Posteriormente, en 2011, lo escuché como teoría y práctica en un curso con Oscar Brenifier y a partir de ahí empecé a indagar por mi cuenta quienes era Lipman, Sharp, Moriyón, etc."

¿Como has empezado a trabajar en área? "Empecé en 2012 en una biblioteca en la que llevaba realizando un Café Filosófico desde el año anterior. Allí me dieron la oportunidad de trabajar 6 meses con niños y 6 meses con adolescentes. Lo cierto es que las oportunidades que me han dado en las bibliotecas han sido clave para que yo pudiera desarrollar mi labor y seguir aprendiendo mediante una práctica de lo que quería hacer."


¿Consideras que la fpc és necessaria para los niños? E porquê?
 
"No solo es necesaria, además desempeña un papel fundamental en la adquisición de destrezas, habilidades y competencia de los niños. En muchos casos, el trabajo que se desarrolla en las sesiones de FpN es una propedéutica para otras materias que presentan sus primeros retos como la literatura o las matemáticas."
 
Hoy en dia los niños em Portugal tienen muchisimas actividades en la escuela e fuera de ella. ¿Porquê debemos tener la filosofia en las escuelas? "Eso es justamente lo que ocurre actualmente con mis talleres. Los niños tienen deportes, inglés o música y acaban por no darle una oportunidad de la Filosofía para Niños porque se quedan sin tiempo para algo tan positivo como es jugar. Esto me entristece mucho porque no le están dando importancia a la calidad del pensamientos o del diálogo de los más pequeños y queremos que hablen muchos idiomas y sean muy inteligentes, pero no saben de qué temas hablar o con qué calidad en las argumentaciones, ni si quiera se preocupan por saber si sus actuaciones están dentro de la moralidad o es una simple repetición de acciones de que otros hacen.  Aunque para llevar esto a la escuela es otro reto. En las escuelas e institutos españoles se elige entre una asignatura enfocada al desarrollo de habilidades éticas y morales o la moral religiosa católica (muy pocos colegios ofrecen una religión que no sea la "mayoritaria"). De esa manera se crea una competencia muy compleja entre alumnos que saben que recibirán una alta calificación si sigue una moral religiosa o alumnos que tienen que trabajar duro y esforzarse para tener una buena nota.  Yo considero que la creencia religiosa debería dejarse en el plano extracurricular, debemos ofrecer a los alumnos que en los colegios se de esa convivencia y tolerancia que existen en las comunidades de indagación o investigación y que fuera de las enseñanzas formales cada uno elija al dios que quiere rezar o en el mito que quiere creer."

¿Que es lo que hace que una pregunta sea una pregunta filosófica - desde el punto de vista de la fpc?
Una pregunta propiamente filosófica es aquella que plantea un reto; sea un problema dilemático o plantee resorte que despierte su curiosidad por averiguar qué hay detrás, en el fondo de la cuestión. 
Casi cualquier elemento de la realidad, al analizarlo de una manera detenida, muestra las aristas y la complejidad de su propia existencia. Solo las preguntas que son retóricas y que buscan una respuesta preestablecida son las únicas que se alejan del potencial de la pregunta filosófica. 
También habría que preguntarnos en este asunto un elemento importante: ¿Puede influir la formulación de una pregunta para que adquiera el cariz filosófico o no?

¿Cuáles son los mayores desafíos que se enfrenta hoy en dia fpc? "Creo que el mundo de la Filosofía en la infancia se enfrenta a múltiples desafíos: por un lado considero que existen múltiples formas de aplicar un programa, el de Lipman, que hoy tiene múltiples caras y múltiples visiones. Existe la Filosofía con Niños, Filosofía desde la Infancia, Filosofía visual para Niños, Filosofía para Niños en contextos de marginalidad y de exclusión social, Filosofía para las Familias, etc. 
Creo que lo interesante es todo lo que se puede aportar a día de hoy que nadie excluya al otro considerando que solo existe un único programa o una única de usar los programas y metodologías. 
Creo que aportar podemos aportar todos, excluir, no debemos excluir a nadie."

¿Puede dar algunos consejos a maestros y padres para ayudarles a lidiar com las perguntas de los niños?
En mis sesiones con padres siempre les hablo del "Diálogo democrático" y se lo ofrezco como un espacio para hacer en casa con los niños y las niñas que quieran tener durante un rato a la semana o al día ese espacio en el que los niños tienen algo que decir y pueden hacerlo. Además de proponer cosas en el funcionamiento de la familia, etc. Cuando les damos voz y oímos sus exigencias, en algunas ocasiones se da eso tan interesante como que la educación es democrática y no la convencional de corte más dictatorial o dogmático ("¡Te lo comes porque yo lo digo!")"

¿Alguna vez has sido sorprendido con una pregunta de un niño? Puedes compartir con nosotros la pregunta? "Creo que las que más me han llegado a sorprender son las que tienen que ver con comer animales y la crueldad, con la sensibilidad que pueden tener los niños sobre el maltrato a animales, mujeres o niños. Temas que ni se tratan en casa en profundidad, excepto mediante las noticias y de manera más descriptiva que reflexiva.
Alguna que el último curso me llamó la atención fue:
 
"¿Pueden los humanos pegar a otros humanos y seguir siendo humanos?"
"¿Es miedo lo que siente un hombre que pega a una mujer?"
"¿Alguna vez alguien ha pensado como piensa un cerdo al que nos vamos a comer?"
 
 
 

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Nick Chandley: "I think many would agree that developing critical and creative thinkers is the main aim of education, along with encouraging children to become good citizens."

I met Nick Chandley on twitter. I was at one of my classes and we were talking about a document signed by Nick. I had a doubt about one thing I read on that document. I looked down and found that Nick had a twitter profile. I send him a tweet with my question and he replied, minutes later. Since then I follow him on twitter. I challenged Nick to give me some answers and he said yes. Thank you, Nick! 

Take a look at Philosophy for Schools

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"I was a teacher in a primary school but had been seconded out to a small, very creative team of teachers working across 9 schools, from a nursery to a secondary school. I went on a Level 1 course in the UK and immediately connected with it as I felt that the P4C way was the type of teacher I already was and had always wanted to be." So, how did you started working with p4c? "I took it back to my schools immediately and they all loved it too so my employers decided it would be good to have a trainer in the local area and encouraged me to attend the various courses and complete the coursework. I became a trainer in 2006 and have been incredibly lucky to have spent my time since then taking P4C into schools." 

 

Do you think p4c is necessary to children? Why? "Yes, I do. John Holt wrote over 50 years ago that the world is changing at such an incredible pace that we need to do all we can to develop our children as thinkers as we couldn’t hope to give them all the knowledge they’ll need when they try and enter the workplace. I think many would agree that developing critical and creative thinkers is the main aim of education, along with encouraging children to become good citizens. P4C, if done well, has all this and more – and the children love it!

 

And what do the children think about philosophy?

"I asked one class of 9/10 year old children why they enjoy P4C so much. They said it’s because it makes them think, so I asked why that’s important because surely, we’re thinking all the time? One girl said that it’s important she does all her thinking when she’s young as she won’t have time when she’s older. I could see why she thought that, possibly observing the adults around her, teachers included, dashing around everywhere (take a look at David McKee’s brilliant book, Not Now, Bernard). I did ask her from what age she thinks she’s going to be too busy think and she said 15!" 

In Portugal, some schools are offering #p4c to their students, as one of the many activities at AEC (in portuguese: actividades de enriquecimento curricular). "Philosophy, as well as enhancing thinking specifically and thinking generally across the curriculum, can also be seen as an ‘activity’. Children really like wrestling with big ideas, especially when we use the various tools at our disposal and I know of many popular philosophy clubs in schools. I also know of groups of schools that come together in a ‘philosothon’, a community of enquiry involving children from various schools who meet and enjoy discussing big ideas. It’s also an activity that continues outside the session and often at home as children think more about the issues raised and explore them with other people.

 

From a #p4c point of view, what makes a question a philosophical question? Nick Chandley reminds us of SAPERE's guidelines: 

SAPERE, the UK P4C charity, says that philosophical questions:

  • are open to examination, further questioning and enquiry;
  • can't be answered by appealing only to scientific investigation or sense
  • experience;
  • are questions about meaning, truth, value, knowledge and reality

And Nick says:

 "I don’t like to use the term ‘questions where there’s no right or wrong answer’ as this could lead children to think it doesn’t really matter what you say. Of course, we’re all entitled to our own opinion but we should be encouraging children, and people generally, to examine whether what they think is based on sound reason. I like to think of philosophical questions as ones that we enjoy engaging with and which encourage us to reflect on our own experiences. In fact, the best philosophical questions, I feel, are ones where it’s difficult to avoid engaging with them. Philip Cam, in his book ’20 Thinking Tools’, introduces us to the question quadrant, a nice tool for helping children distinguish the various types of questions and to develop discussion plans. All too often, children in school are faced with what he would categorise as ‘left side’ questions, those that have an undisputable right answer. Whilst good teachers will always engage children in the wider issues, P4C gives us a methodology and a structure to develop this across the whole school."

 

When asked about the biggest challenge that  #p4c faces, nowadays, Nick anwers: "In these days of data-driven education, one challenge is that the impact of P4C is often difficult to quantify in the terms that the policy-makers demand. There are studies that show its effect but unfortunately, until these effects are statistically measurable in core subjects such as English and maths, P4C is likely to remain a marginal subject. Recent research has linked P4C with improved attainment in English and maths, with results so interesting that the EEF has recently announced another, much larger study of up to 200 primary schools, so we will await the outcome of that project. In the meantime, however, the UK has many, many headteachers that see the benefits and invest both money and curriculum time to embed it in their school."

 

Can you give the teachers and the parents some kid of advice to help them deal with the children’s questions? "Simply be interested in and listen to the children and help them explore their ideas through the use of Socratic questioning – asking for clarification, examples, reasons, similarities & differences, alternative viewpoints, connections, questions etc. People on my courses must get fed up of me saying that the children are the teacher’s best resource but it was John Dewey that said, in My Pedagogic Creed, ‘The child's own instincts and powers furnish the material and give the starting point for all education’.

 

Did the children ever surprised you with a question? Can you share that question with us? "I work regularly with the BBC and one of their producers, Katy Hall, came to observe a session with some 7/8 year-old children, a group I’d been working with for a number of years, as research for a new programme they were making. I did no preparation and didn’t bring anything for the children to think about – no story, picture, video etc, I just simply asked them what they’d really like to talk about. One boy said we should talk about ‘life’ so I asked them what specifically about life they’d like to talk about. They thought about it for a minute or two and decided they’d like to discuss ‘why is life so unfair for normal people?’. A great question and some very sparky discussion followed but I was so proud that the children were so mature and thoughtful. We should never underestimate children’s ability to think but we should give them time to do so."

 

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